Skip Navigation
Genetics Home Reference: your guide to understanding genetic conditions
http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/     A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine®

Autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness

Reviewed January 2014

What is autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness?

Autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina, which is the specialized tissue at the back of the eye that detects light and color. People with this condition typically have difficulty seeing and distinguishing objects in low light (night blindness). For example, they may not be able to identify road signs at night or see stars in the night sky. They also often have other vision problems, including loss of sharpness (reduced acuity), nearsightedness (myopia), involuntary movements of the eyes (nystagmus), and eyes that do not look in the same direction (strabismus).

The vision problems associated with this condition are congenital, which means they are present from birth. They tend to remain stable (stationary) over time.

How common is autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness?

Autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness is likely a rare disease; however, its prevalence is unknown.

What genes are related to autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness?

Mutations in several genes can cause autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness. Each of these genes provide instructions for making proteins that are found in the retina. These proteins are involved in sending (transmitting) visual signals from cells called rods, which are specialized for vision in low light, to cells called bipolar cells, which relay the signals to other retinal cells. This signaling is an essential step in the transmission of visual information from the eyes to the brain.

Mutations in two genes, GRM6 and TRPM1, cause most cases of this condition. These genes provide instructions for making proteins that are necessary for bipolar cells to receive and relay signals. Mutations in other genes involved in the same bipolar cell signaling pathway are likely responsible for a small percentage of cases of autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness.

Gene mutations that cause autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness disrupt the transmission of visual signals between rod cells and bipolar cells or interfere with the bipolar cells' ability to pass on these signals. As a result, visual information received by rod cells cannot be effectively transmitted to the brain, leading to difficulty seeing in low light. The cause of the other vision problems associated with this condition is unclear. It has been suggested that the mechanisms that underlie night blindness can interfere with other visual systems, causing myopia, reduced visual acuity, and other impairments.

Some people with autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness have no identified mutation in any of the known genes. The cause of the disorder in these individuals is unknown.

Related Gene(s)

Changes in these genes are associated with autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness.

  • CABP4
  • GPR179
  • GRM6
  • LRIT3
  • SLC24A1
  • TRPM1

How do people inherit autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness?

This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.

Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness?

These resources address the diagnosis or management of autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness and may include treatment providers.

  • Genetic Testing Registry: Congenital stationary night blindness (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gtr/conditions/C0339535)

You might also find information on the diagnosis or management of autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness in Educational resources (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/autosomal-recessive-congenital-stationary-night-blindness/show/Educational+resources) and Patient support (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/autosomal-recessive-congenital-stationary-night-blindness/show/Patient+support).

General information about the diagnosis (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/diagnosis) and management (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/treatment) of genetic conditions is available in the Handbook. Read more about genetic testing (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/testing), particularly the difference between clinical tests and research tests (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/testing/researchtesting).

To locate a healthcare provider, see How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.

Where can I find additional information about autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness?

You may find the following resources about autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness helpful. These materials are written for the general public.

You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for healthcare professionals and researchers.

What other names do people use for autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness?

  • autosomal recessive complete congenital stationary night blindness
  • autosomal recessive incomplete congenital stationary night blindness

For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/ConditionNameGuide) and How are genetic conditions and genes named? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/naming) in the Handbook.

What if I still have specific questions about autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness?

Ask the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/GARD/).

What glossary definitions help with understanding autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness?

autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; cell ; congenital ; gene ; inherited ; involuntary ; mutation ; myopia ; nearsightedness ; nystagmus ; prevalence ; recessive ; retina ; rods ; strabismus ; tissue ; visual acuity

You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary).

References

  • Audo I, Bujakowska K, Orhan E, Poloschek CM, Defoort-Dhellemmes S, Drumare I, Kohl S, Luu TD, Lecompte O, Zrenner E, Lancelot ME, Antonio A, Germain A, Michiels C, Audier C, Letexier M, Saraiva JP, Leroy BP, Munier FL, Mohand-Saïd S, Lorenz B, Friedburg C, Preising M, Kellner U, Renner AB, Moskova-Doumanova V, Berger W, Wissinger B, Hamel CP, Schorderet DF, De Baere E, Sharon D, Banin E, Jacobson SG, Bonneau D, Zanlonghi X, Le Meur G, Casteels I, Koenekoop R, Long VW, Meire F, Prescott K, de Ravel T, Simmons I, Nguyen H, Dollfus H, Poch O, Léveillard T, Nguyen-Ba-Charvet K, Sahel JA, Bhattacharya SS, Zeitz C. Whole-exome sequencing identifies mutations in GPR179 leading to autosomal-recessive complete congenital stationary night blindness. Am J Hum Genet. 2012 Feb 10;90(2):321-30. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.12.007. Erratum in: Am J Hum Genet. 2012 Jul 13;91(1):209. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22325361?dopt=Abstract)
  • Audo I, Kohl S, Leroy BP, Munier FL, Guillonneau X, Mohand-Saïd S, Bujakowska K, Nandrot EF, Lorenz B, Preising M, Kellner U, Renner AB, Bernd A, Antonio A, Moskova-Doumanova V, Lancelot ME, Poloschek CM, Drumare I, Defoort-Dhellemmes S, Wissinger B, Léveillard T, Hamel CP, Schorderet DF, De Baere E, Berger W, Jacobson SG, Zrenner E, Sahel JA, Bhattacharya SS, Zeitz C. TRPM1 is mutated in patients with autosomal-recessive complete congenital stationary night blindness. Am J Hum Genet. 2009 Nov;85(5):720-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.10.013. Epub 2009 Nov 5. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19896113?dopt=Abstract)
  • Dryja TP, McGee TL, Berson EL, Fishman GA, Sandberg MA, Alexander KR, Derlacki DJ, Rajagopalan AS. Night blindness and abnormal cone electroretinogram ON responses in patients with mutations in the GRM6 gene encoding mGluR6. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Mar 29;102(13):4884-9. Epub 2005 Mar 21. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15781871?dopt=Abstract)
  • Li Z, Sergouniotis PI, Michaelides M, Mackay DS, Wright GA, Devery S, Moore AT, Holder GE, Robson AG, Webster AR. Recessive mutations of the gene TRPM1 abrogate ON bipolar cell function and cause complete congenital stationary night blindness in humans. Am J Hum Genet. 2009 Nov;85(5):711-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.10.003. Epub 2009 Oct 29. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19878917?dopt=Abstract)
  • Peachey NS, Ray TA, Florijn R, Rowe LB, Sjoerdsma T, Contreras-Alcantara S, Baba K, Tosini G, Pozdeyev N, Iuvone PM, Bojang P Jr, Pearring JN, Simonsz HJ, van Genderen M, Birch DG, Traboulsi EI, Dorfman A, Lopez I, Ren H, Goldberg AF, Nishina PM, Lachapelle P, McCall MA, Koenekoop RK, Bergen AA, Kamermans M, Gregg RG. GPR179 is required for depolarizing bipolar cell function and is mutated in autosomal-recessive complete congenital stationary night blindness. Am J Hum Genet. 2012 Feb 10;90(2):331-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.12.006. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22325362?dopt=Abstract)
  • Riazuddin SA, Shahzadi A, Zeitz C, Ahmed ZM, Ayyagari R, Chavali VR, Ponferrada VG, Audo I, Michiels C, Lancelot ME, Nasir IA, Zafar AU, Khan SN, Husnain T, Jiao X, MacDonald IM, Riazuddin S, Sieving PA, Katsanis N, Hejtmancik JF. A mutation in SLC24A1 implicated in autosomal-recessive congenital stationary night blindness. Am J Hum Genet. 2010 Oct 8;87(4):523-31. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.08.013. Epub 2010 Sep 16. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20850105?dopt=Abstract)
  • van Genderen MM, Bijveld MM, Claassen YB, Florijn RJ, Pearring JN, Meire FM, McCall MA, Riemslag FC, Gregg RG, Bergen AA, Kamermans M. Mutations in TRPM1 are a common cause of complete congenital stationary night blindness. Am J Hum Genet. 2009 Nov;85(5):730-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.10.012. Epub 2009 Nov 5. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19896109?dopt=Abstract)
  • Zeitz C, Jacobson SG, Hamel CP, Bujakowska K, Neuillé M, Orhan E, Zanlonghi X, Lancelot ME, Michiels C, Schwartz SB, Bocquet B; Congenital Stationary Night Blindness Consortium, Antonio A, Audier C, Letexier M, Saraiva JP, Luu TD, Sennlaub F, Nguyen H, Poch O, Dollfus H, Lecompte O, Kohl S, Sahel JA, Bhattacharya SS, Audo I. Whole-exome sequencing identifies LRIT3 mutations as a cause of autosomal-recessive complete congenital stationary night blindness. Am J Hum Genet. 2013 Jan 10;92(1):67-75. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.10.023. Epub 2012 Dec 13. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23246293?dopt=Abstract)
  • Zeitz C, Kloeckener-Gruissem B, Forster U, Kohl S, Magyar I, Wissinger B, Mátyás G, Borruat FX, Schorderet DF, Zrenner E, Munier FL, Berger W. Mutations in CABP4, the gene encoding the Ca2+-binding protein 4, cause autosomal recessive night blindness. Am J Hum Genet. 2006 Oct;79(4):657-67. Epub 2006 Aug 23. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16960802?dopt=Abstract)
  • Zeitz C, van Genderen M, Neidhardt J, Luhmann UF, Hoeben F, Forster U, Wycisk K, Mátyás G, Hoyng CB, Riemslag F, Meire F, Cremers FP, Berger W. Mutations in GRM6 cause autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness with a distinctive scotopic 15-Hz flicker electroretinogram. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Nov;46(11):4328-35. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16249515?dopt=Abstract)

 

The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.

 
Reviewed: January 2014
Published: August 18, 2014