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Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by skin abnormalities and the premature fusion of certain bones of the skull (craniosynostosis). This early fusion prevents the skull from growing normally and affects the shape of the head and face.
Many of the characteristic facial features of Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome result from the premature fusion of the skull bones. The head is unable to grow normally, which leads to a cloverleaf-shaped skull, wide-set and bulging eyes, ear abnormalities, and an underdeveloped upper jaw. Early fusion of the skull bones also affects the growth of the brain, causing delayed development and intellectual disability.
A skin abnormality called cutis gyrata is also characteristic of this disorder. The skin has a furrowed and wrinkled appearance, particularly on the face, near the ears, and on the palms and soles of the feet. Additionally, thick, dark, velvety areas of skin (acanthosis nigricans) are sometimes found on the hands and feet and in the genital region.
Additional signs and symptoms of Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome can include a blockage of the nasal passages (choanal atresia), overgrowth of the umbilical stump (tissue that normally falls off shortly after birth, leaving the belly button), and abnormalities of the genitalia and anus. The medical complications associated with this condition are often life-threatening in infancy or early childhood.
Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome is a rare genetic disorder; its incidence is unknown. Fewer than 20 people with this condition have been reported worldwide.
Mutations in the FGFR2 gene cause Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome. This gene produces a protein called fibroblast growth factor receptor 2, which plays an important role in signaling a cell to respond to its environment, perhaps by dividing or maturing. A mutation in the FGFR2 gene alters the protein and promotes prolonged signaling, which is thought to interfere with skeletal and skin development.
Some individuals with Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome do not have identified mutations in the FGFR2 gene. In these cases, the cause of the condition is unknown.
Changes in this gene are associated with Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome.
This condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. All reported cases have resulted from new mutations in the gene, and occurred in people with no history of the disorder in their family.
These resources address the diagnosis or management of Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome and may include treatment providers.
You might also find information on the diagnosis or management of Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome in Educational resources (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/beare-stevenson-cutis-gyrata-syndrome/show/Educational+resources) and Patient support (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/beare-stevenson-cutis-gyrata-syndrome/show/Patient+support).
General information about the diagnosis (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/diagnosis) and management (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/treatment) of genetic conditions is available in the Handbook. Read more about genetic testing (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/testing), particularly the difference between clinical tests and research tests (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/testing/researchtesting).
To locate a healthcare provider, see How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.
You may find the following resources about Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome helpful. These materials are written for the general public.
You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for healthcare professionals and researchers.
For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/ConditionNameGuide) and How are genetic conditions and genes named? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/naming) in the Handbook.
Ask the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/GARD/).
acanthosis nigricans ; anus ; atresia ; autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; bulging eyes ; cell ; craniosynostosis ; fibroblast ; gene ; genitalia ; growth factor ; incidence ; mutation ; protein ; receptor ; syndrome ; tissue
You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary).
The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.