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Cerebral cavernous malformations are collections of small blood vessels (capillaries) in the brain that are enlarged and irregular in structure. These capillaries have abnormally thin walls, and they lack other support tissues, such as elastic fibers, which normally make them stretchy. As a result, the blood vessels are prone to leakage, which can cause the health problems related to this condition. Cavernous malformations can occur anywhere in the body, but usually produce serious signs and symptoms only when they occur in the brain and spinal cord (which are described as cerebral).
Approximately 25 percent of individuals with cerebral cavernous malformations never experience any related health problems. Other people with this condition may experience serious signs and symptoms such as headaches, seizures, paralysis, hearing or vision loss, and bleeding in the brain (cerebral hemorrhage). Severe brain hemorrhages can result in death. The location and number of cerebral cavernous malformations determine the severity of this disorder. These malformations can change in size and number over time.
There are two forms of the condition: familial and sporadic. The familial form is passed from parent to child, and affected individuals typically have multiple cerebral cavernous malformations. The sporadic form occurs in people with no family history of the disorder. These individuals typically have only one malformation.
Cerebral cavernous malformations affect about 0.5 percent of the population worldwide.
Mutations in at least three genes, KRIT1 (also known as CCM1), CCM2, and PDCD10 (also known as CCM3), cause familial cerebral cavernous malformations.
The precise functions of these genes are not fully understood. Studies show that the proteins produced from these genes are found in the junctions connecting neighboring blood vessel cells. The proteins interact with each other as part of a complex that strengthens the interactions between cells and limits leakage from the blood vessels. Mutations in any of the three genes impair the function of the protein complex, resulting in weakened cell-to-cell junctions and increased leakage from vessels as seen in cerebral cavernous malformations.
Mutations in these three genes account for 85 to 95 percent of all cases of familial cerebral cavernous malformations. The remaining 5 to 15 percent of cases may be due to mutations in unidentified genes or to other unknown causes. Mutations in the KRIT1, CCM2, and PDCD10 genes are not involved in sporadic cerebral cavernous malformations. The cause of this form of the condition is unknown.
Changes in these genes are associated with cerebral cavernous malformation.
This condition has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. In the familial form, an affected person inherits the mutation from one affected parent.
Most people with cerebral cavernous malformations have the sporadic form of the disorder. These cases occur in people with no history of the disorder in their family.
These resources address the diagnosis or management of cerebral cavernous malformation and may include treatment providers.
You might also find information on the diagnosis or management of cerebral cavernous malformation in Educational resources (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/cerebral-cavernous-malformation/show/Educational+resources) and Patient support (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/cerebral-cavernous-malformation/show/Patient+support).
General information about the diagnosis (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/diagnosis) and management (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/treatment) of genetic conditions is available in the Handbook. Read more about genetic testing (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/testing), particularly the difference between clinical tests and research tests (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/testing/researchtesting).
To locate a healthcare provider, see How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.
You may find the following resources about cerebral cavernous malformation helpful. These materials are written for the general public.
You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for healthcare professionals and researchers.
For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/ConditionNameGuide) and How are genetic conditions and genes named? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/naming) in the Handbook.
Ask the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/GARD/).
angioma ; autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; capillaries ; cavernous ; cell ; central nervous system ; cerebral hemorrhage ; CNS ; cutaneous ; elastic ; familial ; family history ; gene ; hemangioma ; hemorrhage ; inheritance ; malformation ; mutation ; nervous system ; pattern of inheritance ; population ; protein ; retina ; sporadic
You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary).
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