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Genetics Home Reference: your guide to understanding genetic conditions
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Citrullinemia

Reviewed June 2006

What is citrullinemia?

Citrullinemia is an inherited disorder that causes ammonia and other toxic substances to accumulate in the blood. Two forms of citrullinemia have been described; they have different signs and symptoms and are caused by mutations in different genes.

Type I citrullinemia (also known as classic citrullinemia) usually becomes evident in the first few days of life. Affected infants typically appear normal at birth, but as ammonia builds up in the body they experience a progressive lack of energy (lethargy), poor feeding, vomiting, seizures, and loss of consciousness. These medical problems are life-threatening in many cases. Less commonly, a milder form of type I citrullinemia can develop later in childhood or adulthood. This later-onset form is associated with intense headaches, partial loss of vision, problems with balance and muscle coordination (ataxia), and lethargy. Some people with gene mutations that cause type I citrullinemia never experience signs and symptoms of the disorder.

Type II citrullinemia chiefly affects the nervous system, causing confusion, restlessness, memory loss, abnormal behaviors (such as aggression, irritability, and hyperactivity), seizures, and coma. In some cases, the signs and symptoms of this disorder appear during adulthood (adult-onset). These signs and symptoms can be life-threatening, and are known to be triggered by certain medications, infections, surgery, and alcohol intake in people with adult-onset type II citrullinemia.

The features of adult-onset type II citrullinemia may also develop in people who as infants had a liver disorder called neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD). This liver condition is also known as neonatal-onset type II citrullinemia. NICCD blocks the flow of bile (a digestive fluid produced by the liver) and prevents the body from processing certain nutrients properly. In many cases, the signs and symptoms of NICCD resolve within a year. Years or even decades later, however, some of these people develop the characteristic features of adult-onset type II citrullinemia.

How common is citrullinemia?

Type I citrullinemia is the most common form of the disorder, affecting about 1 in 57,000 people worldwide. Type II citrullinemia is found primarily in the Japanese population, where it occurs in an estimated 1 in 100,000 to 230,000 individuals. Type II also has been reported in other populations, including people from East Asia and the Middle East.

What genes are related to citrullinemia?

Mutations in the ASS1 and SLC25A13 genes cause citrullinemia.

Citrullinemia belongs to a class of genetic diseases called urea cycle disorders. The urea cycle is a sequence of chemical reactions that takes place in liver cells. These reactions process excess nitrogen that is generated when protein is used by the body. The excess nitrogen is used to make a compound called urea, which is excreted in urine.

Mutations in the ASS1 gene cause type I citrullinemia. This gene provides instructions for making an enzyme, argininosuccinate synthase 1, that is responsible for one step of the urea cycle. Mutations in the ASS1 gene reduce the activity of the enzyme, which disrupts the urea cycle and prevents the body from processing nitrogen effectively. Excess nitrogen (in the form of ammonia) and other byproducts of the urea cycle accumulate in the bloodstream. Ammonia is particularly toxic to the nervous system, which helps explain the neurologic symptoms (such as lethargy, seizures, and ataxia) that are often seen in type I citrullinemia.

Mutations in the SLC25A13 gene are responsible for adult-onset type II citrullinemia and NICCD. This gene provides instructions for making a protein called citrin. Within cells, citrin helps transport molecules used in the production and breakdown of simple sugars, the production of proteins, and the urea cycle. Molecules transported by citrin are also involved in making nucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA and its chemical cousin, RNA. Mutations in the SLC25A13 gene typically prevent cells from making any functional citrin, which inhibits the urea cycle and disrupts the production of proteins and nucleotides. The resulting buildup of ammonia and other toxic substances leads to the signs and symptoms of adult-onset type II citrullinemia. A lack of citrin also leads to the features of NICCD, although ammonia does not build up in the bloodstream of infants with this condition.

Related Gene(s)

Changes in these genes are associated with citrullinemia.

  • ASS1
  • SLC25A13

How do people inherit citrullinemia?

This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.

Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of citrullinemia?

These resources address the diagnosis or management of citrullinemia and may include treatment providers.

  • Baby's First Test: Citrullinemia, Type I (http://www.babysfirsttest.org/newborn-screening/conditions/citrullinemia-type-i)
  • Baby's First Test: Citrullinemia, Type II (http://www.babysfirsttest.org/newborn-screening/conditions/citrullinemia-type-ii)
  • Gene Review: Citrin Deficiency (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1181/)
  • Gene Review: Citrullinemia Type I (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1458/)
  • Gene Review: Urea Cycle Disorders (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1217/)
  • Genetic Testing Registry: Citrullinemia type I (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gtr/conditions/C0175683)
  • Genetic Testing Registry: Citrullinemia type II (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gtr/conditions/C1863844)
  • Genetic Testing Registry: Neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gtr/conditions/C1853942)
  • MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Hereditary Urea Cycle Abnormality (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000372.htm)

You might also find information on the diagnosis or management of citrullinemia in Educational resources (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/citrullinemia/show/Educational+resources) and Patient support (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/citrullinemia/show/Patient+support).

General information about the diagnosis (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/diagnosis) and management (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/treatment) of genetic conditions is available in the Handbook. Read more about genetic testing (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/testing), particularly the difference between clinical tests and research tests (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/testing/researchtesting).

To locate a healthcare provider, see How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.

Where can I find additional information about citrullinemia?

You may find the following resources about citrullinemia helpful. These materials are written for the general public.

You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for healthcare professionals and researchers.

What other names do people use for citrullinemia?

  • CIT
  • Citrullinuria

For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/ConditionNameGuide) and How are genetic conditions and genes named? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/naming) in the Handbook.

What if I still have specific questions about citrullinemia?

Ask the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/GARD/).

What glossary definitions help with understanding citrullinemia?

ammonia ; ataxia ; autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; bile ; breakdown ; cell ; class ; coma ; compound ; deficiency ; digestive ; DNA ; enzyme ; gene ; hyperactivity ; hyperammonemia ; inherited ; lethargy ; neonatal ; nervous system ; neurologic ; newborn screening ; population ; protein ; recessive ; RNA ; screening ; surgery ; toxic ; urea

You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary).

References

  • Gao HZ, Kobayashi K, Tabata A, Tsuge H, Iijima M, Yasuda T, Kalkanoglu HS, Dursun A, Tokatli A, Coskun T, Trefz FK, Skladal D, Mandel H, Seidel J, Kodama S, Shirane S, Ichida T, Makino S, Yoshino M, Kang JH, Mizuguchi M, Barshop BA, Fuchinoue S, Seneca S, Zeesman S, Knerr I, Rodés M, Wasant P, Yoshida I, De Meirleir L, Abdul Jalil M, Begum L, Horiuchi M, Katunuma N, Nakagawa S, Saheki T. Identification of 16 novel mutations in the argininosuccinate synthetase gene and genotype-phenotype correlation in 38 classical citrullinemia patients. Hum Mutat. 2003 Jul;22(1):24-34. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12815590?dopt=Abstract)
  • Gene Review: Citrin Deficiency (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1181/)
  • Gene Review: Citrullinemia Type I (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1458/)
  • Lu YB, Kobayashi K, Ushikai M, Tabata A, Iijima M, Li MX, Lei L, Kawabe K, Taura S, Yang Y, Liu TT, Chiang SH, Hsiao KJ, Lau YL, Tsui LC, Lee DH, Saheki T. Frequency and distribution in East Asia of 12 mutations identified in the SLC25A13 gene of Japanese patients with citrin deficiency. J Hum Genet. 2005;50(7):338-46. Epub 2005 Jul 30. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16059747?dopt=Abstract)
  • Saheki T, Kobayashi K, Iijima M, Horiuchi M, Begum L, Jalil MA, Li MX, Lu YB, Ushikai M, Tabata A, Moriyama M, Hsiao KJ, Yang Y. Adult-onset type II citrullinemia and idiopathic neonatal hepatitis caused by citrin deficiency: involvement of the aspartate glutamate carrier for urea synthesis and maintenance of the urea cycle. Mol Genet Metab. 2004 Apr;81 Suppl 1:S20-6. Review. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15050970?dopt=Abstract)
  • Saheki T, Kobayashi K. Mitochondrial aspartate glutamate carrier (citrin) deficiency as the cause of adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2) and idiopathic neonatal hepatitis (NICCD). J Hum Genet. 2002;47(7):333-41. Review. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12111366?dopt=Abstract)

 

The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.

 
Reviewed: June 2006
Published: August 18, 2014