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Genetics Home Reference: your guide to understanding genetic conditions
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Coffin-Lowry syndrome

Reviewed January 2008

What is Coffin-Lowry syndrome?

Coffin-Lowry syndrome is a condition that affects many parts of the body. The signs and symptoms are usually more severe in males than in females, although the features of this disorder range from very mild to severe in affected women.

Males with Coffin-Lowry syndrome typically have severe to profound intellectual disability and delayed development. Affected women may be cognitively normal, or they may have intellectual disability ranging from mild to profound. Beginning in childhood or adolescence, some people with this condition experience brief episodes of collapse when excited or startled by a loud noise. These attacks are called stimulus-induced drop episodes (SIDEs).

Most affected males and some affected females have distinctive facial features including a prominent forehead, widely spaced and downward-slanting eyes, a short nose with a wide tip, and a wide mouth with full lips. These features become more pronounced with age. Soft hands with short, tapered fingers are also characteristic of Coffin-Lowry syndrome. Additional features of this condition include short stature, an unusually small head (microcephaly), progressive abnormal curvature of the spine (kyphoscoliosis), and other skeletal abnormalities.

How common is Coffin-Lowry syndrome?

The incidence of this condition is uncertain, but researchers estimate that the disorder affects 1 in 40,000 to 50,000 people.

What genes are related to Coffin-Lowry syndrome?

Mutations in the RPS6KA3 gene cause Coffin-Lowry syndrome.

The RPS6KA3 gene provides instructions for making a protein that is involved in signaling within cells. Researchers believe that this protein helps control the activity of other genes and plays an important role in the brain. The protein is involved in cell signaling pathways that are required for learning, the formation of long-term memories, and the survival of nerve cells. Gene mutations result in the production of little or no RPS6KA3 protein, but it is unclear how a lack of this protein causes the signs and symptoms of Coffin-Lowry syndrome.

Some people with the features of Coffin-Lowry syndrome do not have identified mutations in the RPS6KA3 gene. In these cases, the cause of the condition is unknown.

Related Gene(s)

Changes in this gene are associated with Coffin-Lowry syndrome.

  • RPS6KA3

How do people inherit Coffin-Lowry syndrome?

This condition is inherited in an X-linked dominant pattern. A condition is considered X-linked if the mutated gene that causes the disorder is located on the X chromosome, one of the two sex chromosomes. The inheritance is dominant if one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the condition. In most cases, males (who have one X chromosome in each cell) experience more severe signs and symptoms of the disorder than females (who have two X chromosomes in each cell). A characteristic of X-linked inheritance is that fathers cannot pass X-linked traits to their sons.

Between 70 percent and 80 percent of people with Coffin-Lowry syndrome have no history of the condition in their families. These cases are caused by new mutations in the RPS6KA3 gene. The remaining 20 percent to 30 percent of affected individuals have other family members with Coffin-Lowry syndrome.

Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of Coffin-Lowry syndrome?

These resources address the diagnosis or management of Coffin-Lowry syndrome and may include treatment providers.

  • Gene Review: Coffin-Lowry Syndrome (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1346)
  • Genetic Testing Registry: Coffin-Lowry syndrome (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gtr/conditions/C0265252)

You might also find information on the diagnosis or management of Coffin-Lowry syndrome in Educational resources (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/coffin-lowry-syndrome/show/Educational+resources) and Patient support (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/coffin-lowry-syndrome/show/Patient+support).

General information about the diagnosis (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/diagnosis) and management (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/treatment) of genetic conditions is available in the Handbook. Read more about genetic testing (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/testing), particularly the difference between clinical tests and research tests (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/testing/researchtesting).

To locate a healthcare provider, see How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.

Where can I find additional information about Coffin-Lowry syndrome?

You may find the following resources about Coffin-Lowry syndrome helpful. These materials are written for the general public.

You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for healthcare professionals and researchers.

What other names do people use for Coffin-Lowry syndrome?

  • CLS
  • Mental retardation with osteocartilaginous abnormalities

For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/ConditionNameGuide) and How are genetic conditions and genes named? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/naming) in the Handbook.

What if I still have specific questions about Coffin-Lowry syndrome?

Ask the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/GARD/).

What glossary definitions help with understanding Coffin-Lowry syndrome?

cell ; chromosome ; disability ; gene ; incidence ; inheritance ; inherited ; kyphoscoliosis ; mental retardation ; microcephaly ; protein ; sex chromosomes ; short stature ; stature ; syndrome ; X-linked dominant

You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary).

References

  • Gene Review: Coffin-Lowry Syndrome (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1346)
  • Hanauer A, Young ID. Coffin-Lowry syndrome: clinical and molecular features. J Med Genet. 2002 Oct;39(10):705-13. Review. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12362025?dopt=Abstract)
  • Herrera-Soto JA, Santiago-Cornier A, Segal LS, Ramirez N, Tamai J. The musculoskeletal manifestations of the Coffin-Lowry syndrome. J Pediatr Orthop. 2007 Jan-Feb;27(1):85-9. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17195803?dopt=Abstract)
  • Hunter AG. Coffin-Lowry syndrome: a 20-year follow-up and review of long-term outcomes. Am J Med Genet. 2002 Sep 1;111(4):345-55. Review. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12210291?dopt=Abstract)
  • Jacquot S, Zeniou M, Touraine R, Hanauer A. X-linked Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS, MIM 303600, RPS6KA3 gene, protein product known under various names: pp90(rsk2), RSK2, ISPK, MAPKAP1). Eur J Hum Genet. 2002 Jan;10(1):2-5. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11896450?dopt=Abstract)
  • Stephenson JB, Hoffman MC, Russell AJ, Falconer J, Beach RC, Tolmie JL, McWilliam RC, Zuberi SM. The movement disorders of Coffin-Lowry syndrome. Brain Dev. 2005 Mar;27(2):108-13. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15668049?dopt=Abstract)

 

The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.

 
Reviewed: January 2008
Published: October 27, 2014