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Genetics Home Reference: your guide to understanding genetic conditions
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Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome

Reviewed June 2006

What is Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome?

Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome is a disorder characterized by the premature joining of certain bones of the skull (craniosynostosis) during development and a skin condition called acanthosis nigricans.

The signs and symptoms of Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome overlap with those of a similar condition called Crouzon syndrome. Common features include premature fusion of the skull bones, which affects the shape of the head and face; wide-set, bulging eyes due to shallow eye sockets; eyes that do not point in the same direction (strabismus); a small, beaked nose; and an underdeveloped upper jaw. People with Crouzon syndrome or Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome are usually of normal intelligence.

Several features distinguish Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome from Crouzon syndrome. People with Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome have acanthosis nigricans, a skin condition characterized by thick, dark, velvety skin in body folds and creases, including the neck and underarms. In addition, subtle changes may be seen in the bones of the spine (vertebrae) on x-rays. Noncancerous growths called cementomas may develop in the jaw during young adulthood.

How common is Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome?

Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome is rare; this condition is seen in about 1 person per million.

What genes are related to Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome?

Mutations in the FGFR3 gene cause Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome.

The FGFR3 gene provides instructions for making a protein that is involved in the development and maintenance of bone and brain tissue. It remains unclear how a mutation in the FGFR3 gene leads to the characteristic features of Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome. This genetic change appears to disrupt the normal growth of skull bones and affect skin pigmentation.

Related Gene(s)

Changes in this gene are associated with Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome.

  • FGFR3

How do people inherit Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome?

This condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder.

In some cases, an affected person inherits the mutation from one affected parent. More commonly, this condition results from new mutations in the gene. These cases occur in people with no history of the disorder in their family.

Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome?

These resources address the diagnosis or management of Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome and may include treatment providers.

  • Gene Review: FGFR-Related Craniosynostosis Syndromes (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1455)
  • Genetic Testing Registry: Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gtr/conditions/C2677099)
  • MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Acanthosis Nigricans (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000852.htm)
  • MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Craniosynostosis (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001590.htm)

You might also find information on the diagnosis or management of Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome in Educational resources (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/crouzonodermoskeletal-syndrome/show/Educational+resources) and Patient support (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/crouzonodermoskeletal-syndrome/show/Patient+support).

General information about the diagnosis (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/diagnosis) and management (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/treatment) of genetic conditions is available in the Handbook. Read more about genetic testing (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/testing), particularly the difference between clinical tests and research tests (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/testing/researchtesting).

To locate a healthcare provider, see How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.

Where can I find additional information about Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome?

You may find the following resources about Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome helpful. These materials are written for the general public.

You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for healthcare professionals and researchers.

What other names do people use for Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome?

  • Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans

For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/ConditionNameGuide) and How are genetic conditions and genes named? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/naming) in the Handbook.

What if I still have specific questions about Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome?

Ask the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/GARD/).

What glossary definitions help with understanding Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome?

acanthosis nigricans ; autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; bulging eyes ; cell ; craniosynostosis ; gene ; inherited ; mutation ; pigmentation ; protein ; skin pigmentation ; strabismus ; syndrome ; tissue ; upper jaw ; x-rays

You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary).

References

  • Cohen MM Jr. Let's call it "Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome" so we won't be prisoners of our own conventional terminology. Am J Med Genet. 1999 May 7;84(1):74. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10213050?dopt=Abstract)
  • Gene Review: FGFR-Related Craniosynostosis Syndromes (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1455)
  • Schweitzer DN, Graham JM Jr, Lachman RS, Jabs EW, Okajima K, Przylepa KA, Shanske A, Chen K, Neidich JA, Wilcox WR. Subtle radiographic findings of achondroplasia in patients with Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans due to an Ala391Glu substitution in FGFR3. Am J Med Genet. 2001 Jan 1;98(1):75-91. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11426459?dopt=Abstract)
  • Vajo Z, Francomano CA, Wilkin DJ. The molecular and genetic basis of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 disorders: the achondroplasia family of skeletal dysplasias, Muenke craniosynostosis, and Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans. Endocr Rev. 2000 Feb;21(1):23-39. Review. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10696568?dopt=Abstract)

 

The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.

 
Reviewed: June 2006
Published: December 22, 2014