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Distal arthrogryposis type 1 is a disorder characterized by joint deformities (contractures) that restrict movement in the hands and feet. The term "arthrogryposis" comes from the Greek words for joint (arthro-) and crooked or hooked (gryposis). The characteristic features of this condition include permanently bent fingers and toes (camptodactyly), overlapping fingers, and a hand deformity in which all of the fingers are angled outward toward the fifth finger (ulnar deviation). Clubfoot, which is an inward- and upward-turning foot, is also commonly seen with distal arthrogryposis type 1. The specific hand and foot abnormalities vary among affected individuals. However, this condition typically does not cause any signs and symptoms affecting other parts of the body.
Distal arthrogryposis type 1 affects an estimated 1 in 10,000 people worldwide.
Distal arthrogryposis type 1 can be caused by mutations in at least two genes: TPM2 and MYBPC1. These genes are active (expressed) in muscle cells, where they interact with other muscle proteins to help regulate the tensing of muscle fibers (muscle contraction). It is unclear how mutations in the TPM2 and MYBPC1 genes lead to the joint abnormalities characteristic of distal arthrogryposis type 1. However, researchers speculate that contractures may be related to problems with muscle contraction that limit the movement of joints before birth.
In some cases, the genetic cause of distal arthrogryposis type 1 is unknown. Researchers are looking for additional genetic changes that may be responsible for this condition.
Changes in these genes are associated with distal arthrogryposis type 1.
This condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one copy of an altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. In many cases, a person with distal arthrogryposis type 1 has a parent and other close family members with the condition.
These resources address the diagnosis or management of distal arthrogryposis type 1 and may include treatment providers.
You might also find information on the diagnosis or management of distal arthrogryposis type 1 in Educational resources (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/distal-arthrogryposis-type-1/show/Educational+resources) and Patient support (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/distal-arthrogryposis-type-1/show/Patient+support).
General information about the diagnosis (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/diagnosis) and management (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/treatment) of genetic conditions is available in the Handbook. Read more about genetic testing (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/testing), particularly the difference between clinical tests and research tests (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/testing/researchtesting).
To locate a healthcare provider, see How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.
You may find the following resources about distal arthrogryposis type 1 helpful. These materials are written for the general public.
You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for healthcare professionals and researchers.
For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/ConditionNameGuide) and How are genetic conditions and genes named? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/naming) in the Handbook.
Ask the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/GARD/).
arthrogryposis ; autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; camptodactyly ; cell ; clubfoot ; contraction ; distal ; expressed ; gene ; joint ; sarcomere ; syndrome
You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary).
The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.