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Reviewed March 2013
What is Frasier syndrome?
Frasier syndrome is a condition that affects the kidneys and genitalia.
Frasier syndrome is characterized by kidney disease that begins in early childhood. Affected individuals have a condition called focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, in which scar tissue forms in some glomeruli, which are the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that filter waste from blood. In people with Frasier syndrome, this condition often leads to kidney failure by adolescence.
Although males with Frasier syndrome have the typical male chromosome pattern (46,XY), they have gonadal dysgenesis, in which external genitalia do not look clearly male or clearly female (ambiguous genitalia) or the genitalia appear completely female. The internal reproductive organs (gonads) are typically undeveloped and referred to as streak gonads. These abnormal gonads are nonfunctional and often become cancerous, so they are usually removed surgically early in life.
Affected females usually have normal genitalia and gonads and have only the kidney features of the condition. Because they do not have all the features of the condition, females are usually given the diagnosis of isolated nephrotic syndrome.
How common is Frasier syndrome?
Frasier syndrome is thought to be a rare condition; approximately 50 cases have been described in the scientific literature.
What genes are related to Frasier syndrome?
Mutations in the WT1 gene cause Frasier syndrome. The WT1 gene provides instructions for making a protein that regulates the activity of other genes by attaching (binding) to specific regions of DNA. On the basis of this action, the WT1 protein is called a transcription factor. The WT1 protein plays a role in the development of the kidneys and gonads (ovaries in females and testes in males) before birth.
The WT1 gene mutations that cause Frasier syndrome lead to the production of a protein with an impaired ability to control gene activity and regulate the development of the kidneys and reproductive organs, resulting in the signs and symptoms of Frasier syndrome.
Frasier syndrome has features similar to another condition called Denys-Drash syndrome, which is also caused by mutations in the WT1 gene. Because these two conditions share a genetic cause and have overlapping features, some researchers have suggested that they are part of a spectrum and not two distinct conditions.
Read more about the WT1 gene.
Read more about Denys-Drash syndrome.
How do people inherit Frasier syndrome?
This condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder.
Most cases of this condition result from new (de novo) mutations in the gene that occur during the formation of reproductive cells (eggs or sperm) or in early embryonic development. These cases occur in people with no history of the disorder in their family.
Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of Frasier syndrome?
These resources address the diagnosis or management of Frasier syndrome and may include treatment providers.
General information about the diagnosis and management of genetic conditions is available in the Handbook. Read more about genetic testing, particularly the difference between clinical tests and research tests.
To locate a healthcare provider, see How can I find a genetics professional in my area? in the Handbook.
Where can I find additional information about Frasier syndrome?
You may find the following resources about Frasier syndrome helpful. These materials are written for the general public.
You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for healthcare professionals and researchers.
What other names do people use for Frasier syndrome?
What if I still have specific questions about Frasier syndrome?
Where can I find general information about genetic conditions?
The Handbook provides basic information about genetics in clear language.
These links provide additional genetics resources that may be useful.
What glossary definitions help with understanding Frasier syndrome?
autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; cell ; chromosome ; diagnosis ; DNA ; dysgenesis ; embryonic ; gene ; genitalia ; kidney ; nephropathy ; protein ; reproductive cells ; spectrum ; sperm ; syndrome ; testes ; tissue ; transcription ; transcription factor
You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary.
See also Understanding Medical Terminology.
References (3 links)
The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? in the Handbook.