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GM2-gangliosidosis, AB variant is a rare inherited disorder that progressively destroys nerve cells (neurons) in the brain and spinal cord.
Signs and symptoms of the AB variant become apparent in infancy. Infants with this disorder typically appear normal until the age of 3 to 6 months, when their development slows and muscles used for movement weaken. Affected infants lose motor skills such as turning over, sitting, and crawling. They also develop an exaggerated startle reaction to loud noises. As the disease progresses, children with the AB variant experience seizures, vision and hearing loss, intellectual disability, and paralysis. An eye abnormality called a cherry-red spot, which can be identified with an eye examination, is characteristic of this disorder. Children with the AB variant usually live only into early childhood.
The AB variant is extremely rare; only a few cases have been reported worldwide.
Mutations in the GM2A gene cause GM2-gangliosidosis, AB variant. The GM2A gene provides instructions for making a protein called the GM2 ganglioside activator. This protein is required for the normal function of an enzyme called beta-hexosaminidase A, which plays a critical role in the brain and spinal cord. Beta-hexosaminidase A and the GM2 ganglioside activator protein work together in lysosomes, which are structures in cells that break down toxic substances and act as recycling centers. Within lysosomes, the activator protein binds to a fatty substance called GM2 ganglioside and presents it to beta-hexosaminidase A to be broken down.
Mutations in the GM2A gene disrupt the activity of the GM2 ganglioside activator, which prevents beta-hexosaminidase A from breaking down GM2 ganglioside. As a result, this substance accumulates to toxic levels, particularly in neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Progressive damage caused by the buildup of GM2 ganglioside leads to the destruction of these neurons, which causes the signs and symptoms of the AB variant.
Because the AB variant impairs the function of a lysosomal enzyme and involves the buildup of GM2 ganglioside, this condition is sometimes referred to as a lysosomal storage disorder or a GM2-gangliosidosis.
Changes in this gene are associated with GM2-gangliosidosis, AB variant.
This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.
These resources address the diagnosis or management of GM2-gangliosidosis, AB variant, and may include treatment providers.
You might also find information on the diagnosis or management of GM2-gangliosidosis, AB variant, in Educational resources (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/gm2-gangliosidosis-ab-variant/show/Educational+resources) and Patient support (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/gm2-gangliosidosis-ab-variant/show/Patient+support).
General information about the diagnosis (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/diagnosis) and management (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/treatment) of genetic conditions is available in the Handbook. Read more about genetic testing (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/testing), particularly the difference between clinical tests and research tests (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/testing/researchtesting).
To locate a healthcare provider, see How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.
You may find the following resources about GM2-gangliosidosis, AB variant, helpful. These materials are written for the general public.
You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for healthcare professionals and researchers.
For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/ConditionNameGuide) and How are genetic conditions and genes named? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/naming) in the Handbook.
Ask the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/GARD/).
autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; cell ; deficiency ; enzyme ; gene ; motor ; protein ; recessive ; toxic
You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary).
The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.