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Hepatic veno-occlusive disease with immunodeficiency
(often shortened to VODI)
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Reviewed January 2009
What is VODI?
Hepatic veno-occlusive disease with immunodeficiency (also called VODI) is a hereditary disorder of the liver and immune system. Its signs and symptoms appear after the first few months of life.
Hepatic veno-occlusive disease is a condition that blocks (occludes) small veins in the liver, disrupting blood flow in this organ. This condition can lead to enlargement of the liver (hepatomegaly), a buildup of scar tissue (hepatic fibrosis), and liver failure.
Children with VODI are prone to recurrent infections caused by certain bacteria, viruses, and fungi. The organisms that cause infection in people with this disorder are described as opportunistic because they ordinarily do not cause illness in healthy people. These infections are usually serious and may be life-threatening. In most people with VODI, infections occur before hepatic veno-occlusive disease becomes evident.
Many people with VODI live only into childhood, although some affected individuals have lived to early adulthood.
How common is VODI?
VODI appears to be a rare disorder; approximately 20 affected families have been reported worldwide. Most people diagnosed with the condition have been of Lebanese ancestry. However, the disorder has also been identified in several individuals with other backgrounds in the United States and Italy.
What genes are related to VODI?
VODI results from mutations in the SP110 gene. This gene provides instructions for making a protein called SP110 nuclear body protein, which is involved in the normal function of the immune system. This protein likely helps regulate the activity of genes needed for the body's immune response to foreign invaders (such as viruses and bacteria).
Mutations in the SP110 gene prevent cells from making functional SP110 nuclear body protein, which impairs the immune system's ability to fight off infections. It is unclear how a lack of this protein affects blood flow in the liver.
Read more about the SP110 gene.
How do people inherit VODI?
This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.
Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of VODI?
These resources address the diagnosis or management of VODI and may include treatment providers.
General information about the diagnosis and management of genetic conditions is available in the Handbook. Read more about genetic testing, particularly the difference between clinical tests and research tests.
To locate a healthcare provider, see How can I find a genetics professional in my area? in the Handbook.
Where can I find additional information about VODI?
You may find the following resources about VODI helpful. These materials are written for the general public.
You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for healthcare professionals and researchers.
What other names do people use for VODI?
What if I still have specific questions about VODI?
Where can I find general information about genetic conditions?
The Handbook provides basic information about genetics in clear language.
These links provide additional genetics resources that may be useful.
What glossary definitions help with understanding VODI?
autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; bacteria ; candidiasis ; cell ; familial ; fibrosis ; gene ; hepatic ; immune response ; immune system ; immunodeficiency ; infection ; liver failure ; occlusion ; protein ; recessive ; syndrome ; tissue ; vascular ; veins ; venoocclusive disease ; veno-occlusive disease
You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary.
See also Understanding Medical Terminology.
References (3 links)
The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? in the Handbook.