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Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency is a condition that prevents the body from converting certain fats to energy. The signs and symptoms of this disorder typically appear in early childhood. Almost all affected children have delayed development. Additional signs and symptoms can include weak muscle tone (hypotonia), seizures, diarrhea, vomiting, and low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). A heart condition called cardiomyopathy, which weakens and enlarges the heart muscle, is another common feature of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency.
This condition is very rare; fewer than 30 cases have been reported.
Mutations in the MLYCD gene cause malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency. The MLYCD gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called malonyl-CoA decarboxylase. Within cells, this enzyme helps regulate the formation and breakdown of a group of fats called fatty acids. Many tissues, including the heart muscle, use fatty acids as a major source of energy.
Mutations in the MLYCD gene reduce or eliminate the function of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase. A shortage of this enzyme disrupts the normal balance of fatty acid formation and breakdown in the body. As a result, fatty acids cannot be converted to energy, which can lead to characteristic features of this disorder including low blood sugar and cardiomyopathy. Byproducts of fatty acid processing build up in tissues, which also contributes to the signs and symptoms of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency.
Changes in this gene are associated with malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency.
This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.
These resources address the diagnosis or management of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency and may include treatment providers.
You might also find information on the diagnosis or management of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency in Educational resources (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/malonyl-coa-decarboxylase-deficiency/show/Educational+resources) and Patient support (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/malonyl-coa-decarboxylase-deficiency/show/Patient+support).
General information about the diagnosis (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/diagnosis) and management (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/treatment) of genetic conditions is available in the Handbook. Read more about genetic testing (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/testing), particularly the difference between clinical tests and research tests (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/testing/researchtesting).
To locate a healthcare provider, see How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.
You may find the following resources about malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency helpful. These materials are written for the general public.
You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for healthcare professionals and researchers.
For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/ConditionNameGuide) and How are genetic conditions and genes named? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/naming) in the Handbook.
Ask the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/GARD/).
acids ; aciduria ; autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; cardiomyopathy ; cell ; CoA ; coenzyme A ; deficiency ; enzyme ; fatty acids ; gene ; hypoglycemia ; hypotonia ; muscle tone ; newborn screening ; oxidation ; recessive ; screening
You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary).
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