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Genetics Home Reference: your guide to understanding genetic conditions
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Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII

Reviewed August 2010

What is mucopolysaccharidosis type VII?

Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII), also known as Sly syndrome, is a progressive condition that affects most tissues and organs. The severity of MPS VII varies widely among affected individuals.

The most severe cases of MPS VII are characterized by hydrops fetalis, a condition in which excess fluid builds up in the body before birth. Most babies with hydrops fetalis are stillborn or die soon after birth. Other people with MPS VII typically begin to show signs and symptoms of the condition during early childhood. The features of MPS VII include a large head (macrocephaly), a buildup of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus), distinctive-looking facial features that are described as "coarse," and a large tongue (macroglossia). Affected individuals also frequently develop an enlarged liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly), heart valve abnormalities, and a soft out-pouching around the belly-button (umbilical hernia) or lower abdomen (inguinal hernia). The airway may become narrow in some people with MPS VII, leading to frequent upper respiratory infections and short pauses in breathing during sleep (sleep apnea). The clear covering of the eye (cornea) becomes cloudy, which can cause significant vision loss. People with MPS VII may also have recurrent ear infections and hearing loss. Affected individuals may have developmental delay and progressive intellectual disability, although intelligence is unaffected in some people with this condition.

MPS VII causes various skeletal abnormalities that become more pronounced with age, including short stature and joint deformities (contractures) that affect mobility. Individuals with this condition may also have dysostosis multiplex, which refers to multiple skeletal abnormalities seen on x-ray. Carpal tunnel syndrome develops in many children with MPS VII and is characterized by numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hands and fingers. People with MPS VII may develop a narrowing of the spinal canal (spinal stenosis) in the neck, which can compress and damage the spinal cord.

The life expectancy of individuals with MPS VII depends on the severity of symptoms. Some affected individuals do not survive infancy, while others may live into adolescence or adulthood. Heart disease and airway obstruction are major causes of death in people with MPS VII.

How common is mucopolysaccharidosis type VII?

The exact incidence of MPS VII is unknown, although it is estimated to occur in 1 in 250,000 newborns. It is one of the rarest types of mucopolysaccharidosis.

What genes are related to mucopolysaccharidosis type VII?

Mutations in the GUSB gene cause MPS VII. This gene provides instructions for producing the beta-glucuronidase (β-glucuronidase) enzyme, which is involved in the breakdown of large sugar molecules called glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). GAGs were originally called mucopolysaccharides, which is where this condition gets its name. Mutations in the GUSB gene reduce or completely eliminate the function of β-glucuronidase. The shortage (deficiency) of β-glucuronidase leads to the accumulation of GAGs within cells, specifically inside the lysosomes. Lysosomes are compartments in the cell that digest and recycle different types of molecules. Conditions such as MPS VII that cause molecules to build up inside the lysosomes are called lysosomal storage disorders. The accumulation of GAGs increases the size of the lysosomes, which is why many tissues and organs are enlarged in this disorder. Researchers believe that the GAGs may also interfere with the functions of other proteins inside the lysosomes and disrupt many normal functions of cells.

Related Gene(s)

Changes in this gene are associated with mucopolysaccharidosis type VII.

  • GUSB

How do people inherit mucopolysaccharidosis type VII?

This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.

Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of mucopolysaccharidosis type VII?

These resources address the diagnosis or management of mucopolysaccharidosis type VII and may include treatment providers.

  • Genetic Testing Registry: Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gtr/conditions/C0085132)
  • National MPS Society: A Guide to Understanding MPS VII (http://www.mpssociety.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/MPS_VII_2008.pdf)

You might also find information on the diagnosis or management of mucopolysaccharidosis type VII in Educational resources (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/mucopolysaccharidosis-type-vii/show/Educational+resources) and Patient support (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/mucopolysaccharidosis-type-vii/show/Patient+support).

General information about the diagnosis (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/diagnosis) and management (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/treatment) of genetic conditions is available in the Handbook. Read more about genetic testing (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/testing), particularly the difference between clinical tests and research tests (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/testing/researchtesting).

To locate a healthcare provider, see How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.

Where can I find additional information about mucopolysaccharidosis type VII?

You may find the following resources about mucopolysaccharidosis type VII helpful. These materials are written for the general public.

You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for healthcare professionals and researchers.

What other names do people use for mucopolysaccharidosis type VII?

  • beta-glucuronidase deficiency
  • GUSB deficiency
  • MPS7
  • MPS VII
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis 7
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis VII
  • Sly Syndrome

For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/ConditionNameGuide) and How are genetic conditions and genes named? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/naming) in the Handbook.

What if I still have specific questions about mucopolysaccharidosis type VII?

Ask the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/GARD/).

What glossary definitions help with understanding mucopolysaccharidosis type VII?

apnea ; autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; breakdown ; carpal tunnel syndrome ; cell ; cornea ; deficiency ; developmental delay ; disability ; enzyme ; gene ; heart valve ; hepatosplenomegaly ; hernia ; hydrocephalus ; hydrops fetalis ; incidence ; inguinal ; inherited ; joint ; macrocephaly ; macroglossia ; obstruction ; recessive ; respiratory ; short stature ; stature ; stenosis ; syndrome

You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary).

References

  • Metcalf JA, Zhang Y, Hilton MJ, Long F, Ponder KP. Mechanism of shortened bones in mucopolysaccharidosis VII. Mol Genet Metab. 2009 Jul;97(3):202-11. doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2009.03.005. Epub 2009 Mar 25. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19375967?dopt=Abstract)
  • Muenzer J. The mucopolysaccharidoses: a heterogeneous group of disorders with variable pediatric presentations. J Pediatr. 2004 May;144(5 Suppl):S27-34. Review. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15126981?dopt=Abstract)
  • Tomatsu S, Montaño AM, Dung VC, Grubb JH, Sly WS. Mutations and polymorphisms in GUSB gene in mucopolysaccharidosis VII (Sly Syndrome). Hum Mutat. 2009 Apr;30(4):511-9. doi: 10.1002/humu.20828. Review. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19224584?dopt=Abstract)
  • Venkat-Raman N, Sebire NJ, Murphy KW. Recurrent fetal hydrops due to mucopolysaccharidoses type VII. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2006;21(3):250-4. Review. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16601332?dopt=Abstract)

 

The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.

 
Reviewed: August 2010
Published: December 16, 2014