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North American Indian childhood cirrhosis is a rare liver disorder that occurs in children. The liver malfunction causes yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice) in affected infants. The disorder worsens with age, progressively damaging the liver and leading to chronic, irreversible liver disease (cirrhosis) in childhood or adolescence. Unless it is treated with liver transplantation, North American Indian childhood cirrhosis typically causes life-threatening complications including liver failure.
North American Indian childhood cirrhosis has been found only in children of Ojibway-Cree descent in the Abitibi region of northwestern Quebec, Canada. At least 30 affected individuals from this population have been reported.
North American Indian childhood cirrhosis results from at least one known mutation in the CIRH1A gene. This gene provides instructions for making a protein called cirhin, whose precise function is unknown. Within cells, cirhin is located in a structure called the nucleolus, which is a small region inside the nucleus where ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is produced. A chemical cousin of DNA, rRNA is a molecule that helps assemble protein building blocks (amino acids) into functioning proteins. Researchers believe that cirhin may play a role in processing rRNA. Studies also suggest that cirhin may function by interacting with other proteins.
Cirhin is found in many different types of cells, so it is unclear why the effects of North American Indian childhood cirrhosis appear to be limited to the liver. Researchers are working to determine how a CIRH1A gene mutation causes the progressive liver damage characteristic of this disorder.
Changes in this gene are associated with North American Indian childhood cirrhosis.
This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.
These resources address the diagnosis or management of North American Indian childhood cirrhosis and may include treatment providers.
You might also find information on the diagnosis or management of North American Indian childhood cirrhosis in Educational resources (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/north-american-indian-childhood-cirrhosis/show/Educational+resources) and Patient support (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/north-american-indian-childhood-cirrhosis/show/Patient+support).
General information about the diagnosis (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/diagnosis) and management (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/treatment) of genetic conditions is available in the Handbook. Read more about genetic testing (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/testing), particularly the difference between clinical tests and research tests (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/testing/researchtesting).
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You may find the following resources about North American Indian childhood cirrhosis helpful. These materials are written for the general public.
You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for healthcare professionals and researchers.
For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/ConditionNameGuide) and How are genetic conditions and genes named? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/naming) in the Handbook.
Ask the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/GARD/).
acids ; autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; cell ; chronic ; cirrhosis ; DNA ; gene ; jaundice ; liver failure ; molecule ; mutation ; neonatal ; nucleolus ; nucleus ; population ; protein ; recessive ; ribosomal RNA ; RNA ; transient
You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary).
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