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Genetics Home Reference: your guide to understanding genetic conditions
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Otopalatodigital syndrome type 1

Reviewed November 2007

What is otopalatodigital syndrome type 1?

Otopalatodigital syndrome type 1 is a disorder primarily involving abnormalities in skeletal development. It is a member of a group of related conditions called otopalatodigital spectrum disorders, which also includes otopalatodigital syndrome type 2, frontometaphyseal dysplasia, and Melnick-Needles syndrome. In general, these disorders involve hearing loss caused by malformations in the tiny bones in the ears (ossicles), problems in the development of the roof of the mouth (palate), and skeletal abnormalities involving the fingers and/or toes (digits).

Otopalatodigital syndrome type 1 is usually the mildest of the otopalatodigital spectrum disorders. People with this condition usually have characteristic facial features including wide-set and downward-slanting eyes; prominent brow ridges; and a small, flat nose. Affected individuals also have hearing loss and chest deformities. They have abnormalities of the fingers and toes, such as blunt, square-shaped (spatulate) fingertips; shortened thumbs and big toes; and unusually long second toes.

Affected individuals may be born with an opening in the roof of the mouth (a cleft palate). They may have mildly bowed limbs, and limited range of motion in some joints. People with otopalatodigital syndrome type 1 may be somewhat shorter than other members of their family. Males with this disorder often have more severe signs and symptoms than do females, who may show only the characteristic facial features.

How common is otopalatodigital syndrome type 1?

Otopalatodigital syndrome type 1 is a rare disorder, affecting fewer than 1 in every 100,000 individuals. Its specific incidence is unknown.

What genes are related to otopalatodigital syndrome type 1?

Mutations in the FLNA gene cause otopalatodigital syndrome type 1.

The FLNA gene provides instructions for producing the protein filamin A, which helps build the network of protein filaments (cytoskeleton) that gives structure to cells and allows them to change shape and move. Filamin A binds to another protein called actin, and helps the actin to form the branching network of filaments that make up the cytoskeleton. Filamin A also links actin to many other proteins to perform various functions within the cell.

A small number of mutations in the FLNA gene have been identified in people with otopalatodigital syndrome type 1. The mutations all result in changes to the filamin A protein in the region that binds to actin. The mutations responsible for otopalatodigital syndrome type 1 are described as "gain-of-function" because they appear to enhance the activity of the filamin A protein or give the protein a new, atypical function. Researchers believe that the mutations may change the way the filamin A protein helps regulate processes involved in skeletal development, but it is not known how changes in the protein relate to the specific signs and symptoms of otopalatodigital syndrome type 1.

Related Gene(s)

Changes in this gene are associated with otopalatodigital syndrome type 1.

  • FLNA

How do people inherit otopalatodigital syndrome type 1?

This condition is inherited in an X-linked dominant pattern. The gene associated with this condition is located on the X chromosome, which is one of the two sex chromosomes. In females (who have two X chromosomes), a mutation in one of the two copies of the gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. In males (who have only one X chromosome), a mutation in the only copy of the gene in each cell causes the disorder. In most cases, males experience more severe symptoms of the disorder than females. A characteristic of X-linked inheritance is that fathers cannot pass X-linked traits to their sons.

Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of otopalatodigital syndrome type 1?

These resources address the diagnosis or management of otopalatodigital syndrome type 1 and may include treatment providers.

  • Gene Review: Otopalatodigital spectrum disorders (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1393/)
  • Genetic Testing Registry: Oto-palato-digital syndrome, type I (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gtr/conditions/C0265251)

You might also find information on the diagnosis or management of otopalatodigital syndrome type 1 in Educational resources (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/otopalatodigital-syndrome-type-1/show/Educational+resources) and Patient support (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/otopalatodigital-syndrome-type-1/show/Patient+support).

General information about the diagnosis (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/diagnosis) and management (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/treatment) of genetic conditions is available in the Handbook. Read more about genetic testing (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/testing), particularly the difference between clinical tests and research tests (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/testing/researchtesting).

To locate a healthcare provider, see How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.

Where can I find additional information about otopalatodigital syndrome type 1?

You may find the following resources about otopalatodigital syndrome type 1 helpful. These materials are written for the general public.

You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for healthcare professionals and researchers.

What other names do people use for otopalatodigital syndrome type 1?

  • cranioorodigital syndrome
  • faciopalatoosseous syndrome
  • FPO
  • OPD syndrome, type 1
  • Taybi syndrome

For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/ConditionNameGuide) and How are genetic conditions and genes named? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/naming) in the Handbook.

What if I still have specific questions about otopalatodigital syndrome type 1?

Ask the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/GARD/).

What glossary definitions help with understanding otopalatodigital syndrome type 1?

actin ; atypical ; cell ; chromosome ; cleft palate ; cytoskeleton ; dysplasia ; gene ; incidence ; inheritance ; inherited ; mutation ; palate ; protein ; sex chromosomes ; spectrum ; syndrome ; X-linked dominant

You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary).

References

  • Gene Review: Otopalatodigital spectrum disorders (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1393/)
  • Hidalgo-Bravo A, Pompa-Mera EN, Kofman-Alfaro S, Gonzalez-Bonilla CR, Zenteno JC. A novel filamin A D203Y mutation in a female patient with otopalatodigital type 1 syndrome and extremely skewed X chromosome inactivation. Am J Med Genet A. 2005 Jul 15;136(2):190-3. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15940695?dopt=Abstract)
  • OMIM: OTOPALATODIGITAL SYNDROME, TYPE I (http://omim.org/entry/311300)
  • Robertson SP, Twigg SR, Sutherland-Smith AJ, Biancalana V, Gorlin RJ, Horn D, Kenwrick SJ, Kim CA, Morava E, Newbury-Ecob R, Orstavik KH, Quarrell OW, Schwartz CE, Shears DJ, Suri M, Kendrick-Jones J, Wilkie AO; OPD-spectrum Disorders Clinical Collaborative Group. Localized mutations in the gene encoding the cytoskeletal protein filamin A cause diverse malformations in humans. Nat Genet. 2003 Apr;33(4):487-91. Epub 2003 Mar 3. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12612583?dopt=Abstract)
  • Robertson SP. Otopalatodigital syndrome spectrum disorders: otopalatodigital syndrome types 1 and 2, frontometaphyseal dysplasia and Melnick-Needles syndrome. Eur J Hum Genet. 2007 Jan;15(1):3-9. Epub 2006 Aug 23. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16926860?dopt=Abstract)

 

The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.

 
Reviewed: November 2007
Published: July 21, 2014