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Genetics Home Reference: your guide to understanding genetic conditions
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Salih myopathy

Reviewed February 2012

What is Salih myopathy?

Salih myopathy is an inherited muscle disease that affects the skeletal muscles, which are used for movement, and the heart (cardiac) muscle. This condition is characterized by skeletal muscle weakness that becomes apparent in early infancy. Affected individuals have delayed development of motor skills, such as sitting, standing, and walking. Beginning later in childhood, people with Salih myopathy may also develop joint deformities called contractures that restrict the movement of the neck and back. Scoliosis, which is an abnormal side-to-side curvature of the spine, also develops in late childhood.

A form of heart disease called dilated cardiomyopathy is another feature of Salih myopathy. Dilated cardiomyopathy enlarges and weakens the cardiac muscle, preventing the heart from pumping blood efficiently. Signs and symptoms of this condition can include an irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia), shortness of breath, extreme tiredness (fatigue), and swelling of the legs and feet. The heart abnormalities associated with Salih myopathy usually become apparent in childhood, after the skeletal muscle abnormalities. The heart disease worsens quickly, and it often causes heart failure and sudden death in adolescence or early adulthood.

How common is Salih myopathy?

Salih myopathy appears to be a rare disorder, although its prevalence is unknown. It has been reported in a small number of families of Moroccan and Sudanese descent.

What genes are related to Salih myopathy?

Salih myopathy is caused by mutations in the TTN gene. This gene provides instructions for making a protein called titin, which plays an important role in skeletal and cardiac muscle function.

Within muscle cells, titin is an essential component of structures called sarcomeres. Sarcomeres are the basic units of muscle contraction; they are made of proteins that generate the mechanical force needed for muscles to contract. Titin has several functions within sarcomeres. One of this protein's most important jobs is to provide structure, flexibility, and stability to these cell structures. Titin also plays a role in chemical signaling and in assembling new sarcomeres.

The TTN gene mutations responsible for Salih myopathy lead to the production of an abnormally short version of titin. The defective protein disrupts the function of sarcomeres, which prevents skeletal and cardiac muscle from contracting normally. These muscle abnormalities underlie the features of Salih myopathy, including skeletal muscle weakness and dilated cardiomyopathy.

Related Gene(s)

Changes in this gene are associated with Salih myopathy.

  • TTN

How do people inherit Salih myopathy?

This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.

Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of Salih myopathy?

These resources address the diagnosis or management of Salih myopathy and may include treatment providers.

  • Gene Review: Salih Myopathy (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK83297/)
  • Genetic Testing Registry: Myopathy, early-onset, with fatal cardiomyopathy (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gtr/conditions/C2673677)

You might also find information on the diagnosis or management of Salih myopathy in Educational resources (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/salih-myopathy/show/Educational+resources) and Patient support (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/salih-myopathy/show/Patient+support).

General information about the diagnosis (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/diagnosis) and management (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/treatment) of genetic conditions is available in the Handbook. Read more about genetic testing (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/testing), particularly the difference between clinical tests and research tests (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/testing/researchtesting).

To locate a healthcare provider, see How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.

Where can I find additional information about Salih myopathy?

You may find the following resources about Salih myopathy helpful. These materials are written for the general public.

You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for healthcare professionals and researchers.

What other names do people use for Salih myopathy?

  • early-onset myopathy with fatal cardiomyopathy
  • Salih CMD
  • Salih congenital muscular dystrophy

For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/ConditionNameGuide) and How are genetic conditions and genes named? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/naming) in the Handbook.

What if I still have specific questions about Salih myopathy?

Ask the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/GARD/).

What glossary definitions help with understanding Salih myopathy?

arrhythmia ; autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; cardiac ; cardiomyopathy ; cell ; congenital ; contraction ; dilated ; gene ; heart failure ; inherited ; joint ; motor ; muscle cells ; muscular dystrophy ; prevalence ; protein ; recessive ; scoliosis ; skeletal muscle

You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary).

References

  • Carmignac V, Salih MA, Quijano-Roy S, Marchand S, Al Rayess MM, Mukhtar MM, Urtizberea JA, Labeit S, Guicheney P, Leturcq F, Gautel M, Fardeau M, Campbell KP, Richard I, Estournet B, Ferreiro A. C-terminal titin deletions cause a novel early-onset myopathy with fatal cardiomyopathy. Ann Neurol. 2007 Apr;61(4):340-51. Erratum in: Ann Neurol. 2012 May;71(5):728. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17444505?dopt=Abstract)
  • Gene Review: Salih Myopathy (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK83297/)
  • Salih MA, Al Rayess M, Cutshall S, Urtizberea JA, Al-Turaiki MH, Ozo CO, Straub V, Akbar M, Abid M, Andeejani A, Campbell KP. A novel form of familial congenital muscular dystrophy in two adolescents. Neuropediatrics. 1998 Dec;29(6):289-93. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10029346?dopt=Abstract)
  • Subahi SA. Distinguishing cardiac features of a novel form of congenital muscular dystrophy (Salih cmd). Pediatr Cardiol. 2001 Jul-Aug;22(4):297-301. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11455396?dopt=Abstract)

 

The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.

 
Reviewed: February 2012
Published: July 21, 2014