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The official name of this gene is “aldehyde dehydrogenase 4 family, member A1.”
ALDH4A1 is the gene's official symbol. The ALDH4A1 gene is also known by other names, listed below.
The ALDH4A1 gene provides instructions for producing the enzyme pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, which is found in tissues throughout the body. Within the cells of these tissues, this enzyme functions in energy-producing structures called mitochondria.
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase starts the second step in the process that breaks down the protein building block (amino acid) proline. This step converts pyrroline-5-carboxylate, which is produced in the first step, to the amino acid glutamate. The conversion between proline and glutamate is important in maintaining a supply of the amino acids needed for protein production, and for energy transfer within the cell.
The ALDH4A1 gene belongs to a family of genes called ALDH (aldehyde dehydrogenases).
A gene family is a group of genes that share important characteristics. Classifying individual genes into families helps researchers describe how genes are related to each other. For more information, see What are gene families? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/howgeneswork/genefamilies) in the Handbook.
Researchers have identified three mutations in the ALDH4A1 gene that eliminate the function of the pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase enzyme, causing hyperprolinemia type II. Two of these mutations add or delete a DNA building block (nucleotide), which introduces a premature stop signal that results in an abnormally shortened enzyme. The third mutation results in the substitution of the amino acid leucine for the amino acid serine at position 352 (written as Ser352Leu or S352L) in the pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase enzyme. Nonfunctional pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase leads to elevated levels of proline and a buildup of the intermediate breakdown product pyrroline-5-carboxylate, causing the signs and symptoms of hyperprolinemia type II.
Cytogenetic Location: 1p36
Molecular Location on chromosome 1: base pairs 18,871,429 to 18,902,798
The ALDH4A1 gene is located on the short (p) arm of chromosome 1 at position 36.
More precisely, the ALDH4A1 gene is located from base pair 18,871,429 to base pair 18,902,798 on chromosome 1.
See How do geneticists indicate the location of a gene? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/howgeneswork/genelocation) in the Handbook.
You and your healthcare professional may find the following resources about ALDH4A1 helpful.
You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for genetics professionals and researchers.
See How are genetic conditions and genes named? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/naming) in the Handbook.
acids ; aldehyde ; amino acid ; breakdown ; carboxylate ; cell ; dehydrogenase ; DNA ; enzyme ; gene ; leucine ; mitochondria ; mutation ; nucleotide ; proline ; protein ; serine ; substitution
You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary).
The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.