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Genetics Home Reference: your guide to understanding genetic conditions
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ANG

Reviewed August 2012

What is the official name of the ANG gene?

The official name of this gene is “angiogenin, ribonuclease, RNase A family, 5.”

ANG is the gene's official symbol. The ANG gene is also known by other names, listed below.

What is the normal function of the ANG gene?

The ANG gene provides instructions for making a protein called angiogenin. This protein promotes the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing blood vessels through a process called angiogenesis. In this process, angiogenin helps stimulate the growth and division of endothelial cells, which line the inside surface of blood vessels, to form new blood vessels. Angiogenesis is important for restoring blood flow after an injury. Angiogenin may also be involved in other steps of angiogenesis, such as helping to break down the tissue that surrounds existing blood vessels to allow room for the growth of new blood vessels.

Angiogenin is found in a variety of cells throughout the body and circulates in the bloodstream. When angiogenin attaches (binds) to receptors on the surface of endothelial cells, it triggers a series of reactions that bring angiogenin inside the cell. Once inside endothelial cells, angiogenin moves to the nucleus where it plays a role in regulating protein production. To stimulate the production of proteins, angiogenin triggers the production of ribosomal RNA (rRNA), a chemical cousin of DNA. Ribosomal RNA is required for assembling protein building blocks (amino acids) into functioning proteins. Angiogenin triggers the production of rRNA when there is an increased demand for proteins, such as for the growth and division of endothelial cells. When proteins are not needed, angiogenin breaks down a form of RNA called transfer RNA (tRNA), which, along with rRNA, is needed for assembling amino acids into full-length, functioning proteins.

Research findings suggest that angiogenin also has antimicrobial properties, which means it can help fight infections caused by bacteria and fungi.

Does the ANG gene share characteristics with other genes?

The ANG gene belongs to a family of genes called RNASE (ribonucleases, RNase A).

A gene family is a group of genes that share important characteristics. Classifying individual genes into families helps researchers describe how genes are related to each other. For more information, see What are gene families? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/howgeneswork/genefamilies) in the Handbook.

How are changes in the ANG gene related to health conditions?

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis - increased risk from variations of the ANG gene

Researchers have identified several ANG gene mutations that may increase the risk of developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a condition characterized by progressive movement problems and muscle wasting. These mutations change single amino acids in the angiogenin protein. The effect of ANG gene mutations is not fully understood. Researchers suggest that most mutations reduce the activity of angiogenin. It is thought that a reduction in angiogenin's ability to promote the production of rRNA and subsequently the production of proteins has a negative effect on cells, which may cause them eventually to die. It is unclear how this cell death impacts the nerve cells that are affected in ALS. Some people with ANG gene mutations who develop ALS also develop a condition called frontotemporal dementia (FTD), which is a progressive brain disorder that affects personality, behavior, and language. Individuals who develop both conditions are diagnosed as having ALS-FTD. It is unknown why some people with ALS develop FTD and others do not.

Where is the ANG gene located?

Cytogenetic Location: 14q11.1-q11.2

Molecular Location on chromosome 14: base pairs 20,684,176 to 20,694,185

The ANG gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 14 between positions 11.1 and 11.2.

The ANG gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 14 between positions 11.1 and 11.2.

More precisely, the ANG gene is located from base pair 20,684,176 to base pair 20,694,185 on chromosome 14.

See How do geneticists indicate the location of a gene? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/howgeneswork/genelocation) in the Handbook.

Where can I find additional information about ANG?

You and your healthcare professional may find the following resources about ANG helpful.

You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for genetics professionals and researchers.

What other names do people use for the ANG gene or gene products?

  • ANGI_HUMAN
  • ribonuclease 5
  • RNASE5

See How are genetic conditions and genes named? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/naming) in the Handbook.

What glossary definitions help with understanding ANG?

acids ; angiogenesis ; antimicrobial ; bacteria ; cell ; dementia ; DNA ; endothelial cells ; gene ; injury ; nucleus ; protein ; ribosomal RNA ; RNA ; sclerosis ; tissue ; transfer RNA ; tRNA ; wasting

You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary).

References

  • Andersen PM, Al-Chalabi A. Clinical genetics of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: what do we really know? Nat Rev Neurol. 2011 Oct 11;7(11):603-15. doi: 10.1038/nrneurol.2011.150. Review. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21989245?dopt=Abstract)
  • Ferraiuolo L, Kirby J, Grierson AJ, Sendtner M, Shaw PJ. Molecular pathways of motor neuron injury in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nat Rev Neurol. 2011 Nov;7(11):616-30. doi: 10.1038/nrneurol.2011.152. Review. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22051914?dopt=Abstract)
  • Greenway MJ, Andersen PM, Russ C, Ennis S, Cashman S, Donaghy C, Patterson V, Swingler R, Kieran D, Prehn J, Morrison KE, Green A, Acharya KR, Brown RH Jr, Hardiman O. ANG mutations segregate with familial and 'sporadic' amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nat Genet. 2006 Apr;38(4):411-3. Epub 2006 Feb 26. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16501576?dopt=Abstract)
  • Kishimoto K, Liu S, Tsuji T, Olson KA, Hu GF. Endogenous angiogenin in endothelial cells is a general requirement for cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Oncogene. 2005 Jan 13;24(3):445-56. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15558023?dopt=Abstract)
  • Lambrechts D, Lafuste P, Carmeliet P, Conway EM. Another angiogenic gene linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Trends Mol Med. 2006 Aug;12(8):345-7. Epub 2006 Jul 14. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16843725?dopt=Abstract)
  • NCBI Gene (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/283)
  • OMIM: ANGIOGENIN (http://omim.org/entry/105850)
  • Tello-Montoliu A, Patel JV, Lip GY. Angiogenin: a review of the pathophysiology and potential clinical applications. J Thromb Haemost. 2006 Sep;4(9):1864-74. Review. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16961595?dopt=Abstract)

 

The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.

 
Reviewed: August 2012
Published: July 28, 2014