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The official name of this gene is “cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, gamma (muscle).”
CHRNG is the gene's official symbol. The CHRNG gene is also known by other names, listed below.
The CHRNG gene provides instructions for making the gamma (γ) protein component (subunit) of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) protein. The AChR protein is found in the membrane of skeletal muscle cells and is critical for signaling between nerve and muscle cells. Signaling between these cells is necessary for movement. The AChR protein consists of five subunits, each of which is produced from a different gene. The subunits are assembled into the AChR protein in the endoplasmic reticulum, a cell structure involved in protein processing and transport, before being transported to the cell membrane. The γ subunit is found only in the fetal AChR protein. At about the thirty-third week of pregnancy, the γ subunit is replaced by the epsilon (ε) subunit, which is produced by the CHRNE gene, to form the adult AChR protein.
At least 14 mutations in the CHRNG gene have been found to cause multiple pterygium syndrome, a condition characterized by webbing of the skin (pterygium) and a lack of muscle movement (akinesia) before birth. These mutations include replacing, adding, or deleting DNA building blocks (nucleotides). CHRNG gene mutations result in an impaired or missing γ subunit. The severity of the CHRNG gene mutation influences the severity of the condition. Typically, mutations that prevent the production of any γ subunit will result in lethal multiple pterygium syndrome, which is fatal before birth, while mutations that allow the production of some γ subunit will lead to the milder form of this condition called multiple pterygium syndrome, Escobar type. A shortage of a functional γ subunit prevents the fetal AChR protein from being assembled or properly placed in the muscle cell membrane. As a result, the fetal AChR protein cannot function and the communication between nerve and muscle cells in the developing fetus is impaired. A lack of signaling between nerve and muscle cells leads to akinesia and pterygium before birth, and many of the other signs and symptoms of multiple pterygium syndrome.
Cytogenetic Location: 2q37.1
Molecular Location on chromosome 2: base pairs 233,404,423 to 233,411,037
The CHRNG gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 2 at position 37.1.
More precisely, the CHRNG gene is located from base pair 233,404,423 to base pair 233,411,037 on chromosome 2.
See How do geneticists indicate the location of a gene? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/howgeneswork/genelocation) in the Handbook.
You and your healthcare professional may find the following resources about CHRNG helpful.
You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for genetics professionals and researchers.
See How are genetic conditions and genes named? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/naming) in the Handbook.
acetylcholine ; akinesia ; cell ; cell membrane ; DNA ; endoplasmic reticulum ; fetus ; gene ; mutation ; protein ; receptor ; skeletal muscle ; subunit ; syndrome
You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary).
The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.