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The official name of this gene is “early growth response 2.”
EGR2 is the gene's official symbol. The EGR2 gene is also known by other names, listed below.
The EGR2 gene provides instructions for making a protein called early growth response 2, which is part of the early growth response family of proteins. These proteins bind to specific areas of DNA and help control the activity of particular genes. On the basis of this action, the proteins are called transcription factors.
The early growth response 2 protein activates several genes that are involved in the formation and maintenance of myelin, the protective substance that covers nerve cells. Myelin is essential for the efficient transmission of nerve impulses.
Mutations in the EGR2 gene can cause two forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 1D or type 4E (sometimes called congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy). These mutations change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the early growth response 2 protein. As a result, the altered protein cannot bind effectively to DNA, which disrupts the control of genes involved in myelin formation and maintenance. This disruption results in the loss of myelin (demyelination) and impaired transmission of nerve impulses. As a result, the functioning of peripheral nerves that connect the brain and spinal cord to muscles and to sensory cells that detect sensations such as touch, pain, heat, and sound is reduced, causing the signs and symptoms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.
A particular mutation has been identified in individuals with type 1D Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease who also have hearing loss. As a result of this mutation, the amino acid arginine is replaced with the amino acid histidine at protein position 381 (written as Arg381His). Other EGR2 gene mutations cause a severe form of type 1D (sometimes called Dejerine-Sottas syndrome) that begins during infancy or early childhood. One of these mutations replaces the amino acid arginine with the amino acid tryptophan at protein position 359 (written as Arg359Trp). Another replaces the amino acid aspartic acid with the amino acid tyrosine at protein position 383 (Asp383Tyr). It is unclear why these particular mutations cause severe symptoms that begin early in life.
Cytogenetic Location: 10q21.1
Molecular Location on chromosome 10: base pairs 64,571,755 to 64,578,926
The EGR2 gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 10 at position 21.1.
More precisely, the EGR2 gene is located from base pair 64,571,755 to base pair 64,578,926 on chromosome 10.
See How do geneticists indicate the location of a gene? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/howgeneswork/genelocation) in the Handbook.
You and your healthcare professional may find the following resources about EGR2 helpful.
You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for genetics professionals and researchers.
See How are genetic conditions and genes named? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/naming) in the Handbook.
acids ; amino acid ; congenital ; demyelination ; DNA ; gene ; mutation ; neuropathy ; peripheral ; peripheral nerves ; protein ; sensory cells ; syndrome ; transcription ; tyrosine
You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary).
The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.