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The official name of this gene is “establishment of sister chromatid cohesion N-acetyltransferase 2.”
ESCO2 is the gene's official symbol. The ESCO2 gene is also known by other names, listed below.
The ESCO2 gene provides instructions for making a protein that is important for proper chromosome separation during cell division. Before cells divide, they must copy all of their chromosomes. The copied DNA from each chromosome is arranged into two identical structures, called sister chromatids. The ESCO2 protein plays an important role in establishing the glue that holds the sister chromatids together until the chromosomes are ready to separate.
At least 26 mutations have been found to cause Roberts syndrome. All of these mutations prevent the cell from producing any functional ESCO2 protein. Some mutations change single protein building blocks (amino acids), while others result in an abnormally short protein. The absence of functional ESCO2 protein causes some of the glue between sister chromatids to be missing around the chromosome's constriction point (centromere). In Roberts syndrome, cells respond to abnormal sister chromatid attachment by delaying cell division. Delayed cell division can be a signal that the cell should undergo self-destruction. The signs and symptoms of Roberts syndrome may be due to the loss of cells from various tissues during early development.
Researchers originally suspected that the varying severity of Roberts syndrome was caused by different types of mutations in the ESCO2 gene. They predicted that people with the mild form of the disorder would have mutations that reduced the activity of the ESCO2 protein, while those with the severe form would have mutations that completely eliminated the protein's function. However, all known mutations in the ESCO2 gene prevent the production of any functional ESCO2 protein. The underlying cause of the variation in disease severity remains unknown. Researchers suspect that other genetic and environmental factors may be involved.
Cytogenetic Location: 8p21.1
Molecular Location on chromosome 8: base pairs 27,771,476 to 27,812,395
The ESCO2 gene is located on the short (p) arm of chromosome 8 at position 21.1.
More precisely, the ESCO2 gene is located from base pair 27,771,476 to base pair 27,812,395 on chromosome 8.
See How do geneticists indicate the location of a gene? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/howgeneswork/genelocation) in the Handbook.
You and your healthcare professional may find the following resources about ESCO2 helpful.
You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for genetics professionals and researchers.
See How are genetic conditions and genes named? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/naming) in the Handbook.
acids ; cell ; cell division ; centromere ; chromatid ; chromosome ; cohesion ; DNA ; gene ; protein ; sister chromatid ; sister chromatid cohesion ; syndrome
You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary).
The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.