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F2

F2

Reviewed September 2008

What is the official name of the F2 gene?

The official name of this gene is “coagulation factor II (thrombin).”

F2 is the gene's official symbol. The F2 gene is also known by other names, listed below.

Read more about gene names and symbols on the About page.

What is the normal function of the F2 gene?

The F2 gene provides instructions for making a protein called prothrombin (also called coagulation factor II). Coagulation factors are a group of related proteins that are essential for normal blood clotting (hemostasis). After an injury, clots protect the body by sealing off damaged blood vessels and preventing further blood loss.

Prothrombin is made chiefly by cells in the liver. The protein circulates in the bloodstream in an inactive form until an injury occurs that damages blood vessels. In response to injury, prothrombin is converted to its active form, thrombin. Thrombin then converts a protein called fibrinogen into fibrin, the primary protein that makes up blood clots.

Thrombin is also thought to be involved in cell growth and division (proliferation), tissue repair, and the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis).

Does the F2 gene share characteristics with other genes?

The F2 gene belongs to a family of genes called endogenous ligands (endogenous ligands).

A gene family is a group of genes that share important characteristics. Classifying individual genes into families helps researchers describe how genes are related to each other. For more information, see What are gene families? in the Handbook.

How are changes in the F2 gene related to health conditions?

prothrombin deficiency - caused by mutations in the F2 gene

More than 50 mutations in the F2 gene have been found to cause prothrombin deficiency. Most of these mutations change one protein building block (amino acid) in prothrombin. Some mutations drastically reduce the activity of prothrombin and can lead to severe bleeding episodes. Other mutations allow for a moderate amount of activity of prothrombin, typically causing mild bleeding episodes. None of the mutations identified eliminate prothrombin function. Researchers believe that people cannot live with a complete absence of prothrombin.

prothrombin thrombophilia - caused by mutations in the F2 gene

The mutation that causes most cases of prothrombin thrombophilia changes one DNA building block (nucleotide) in the F2 gene. Specifically, it replaces the nucleotide guanine with the nucleotide adenine at position 20210 (written G20210A or 20210G>A). This mutation, which occurs in a region of the gene called the 3' untranslated region, causes the gene to be overactive and leads to the production of too much prothrombin. An abundance of prothrombin leads to more thrombin, which promotes the formation of blood clots.

Where is the F2 gene located?

Cytogenetic Location: 11p11

Molecular Location on chromosome 11: base pairs 46,719,191 to 46,739,505

The F2 gene is located on the short (p) arm of chromosome 11 at position 11.

The F2 gene is located on the short (p) arm of chromosome 11 at position 11.

More precisely, the F2 gene is located from base pair 46,719,191 to base pair 46,739,505 on chromosome 11.

See How do geneticists indicate the location of a gene? in the Handbook.

Where can I find additional information about F2?

You and your healthcare professional may find the following resources about F2 helpful.

You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for genetics professionals and researchers.

What other names do people use for the F2 gene or gene products?

  • Blood Coagulation Factor II
  • coagulation factor II
  • prothrombin B-chain
  • PT
  • Q7Z7P3_HUMAN
  • serine protease

Where can I find general information about genes?

The Handbook provides basic information about genetics in clear language.

These links provide additional genetics resources that may be useful.

What glossary definitions help with understanding F2?

adenine ; amino acid ; angiogenesis ; blood clotting ; blood coagulation ; blood coagulation factor ; cell ; clotting ; coagulation ; coagulation factors ; deficiency ; DNA ; fibrin ; fibrinogen ; gene ; guanine ; hemostasis ; injury ; mutation ; nucleotide ; proliferation ; protease ; protein ; serine ; thrombin ; thrombophilia ; tissue

You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary.

See also Understanding Medical Terminology.

References (8 links)

 

The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? in the Handbook.

 
Reviewed: September 2008
Published: October 20, 2014