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The official name of this gene is “major histocompatibility complex, class I, B.”
HLA-B is the gene's official symbol. The HLA-B gene is also known by other names, listed below.
The HLA-B gene provides instructions for making a protein that plays a critical role in the immune system. HLA-B is part of a family of genes called the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex. The HLA complex helps the immune system distinguish the body's own proteins from proteins made by foreign invaders such as viruses and bacteria.
HLA is the human version of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a gene family that occurs in many species. Genes in this complex are categorized into three basic groups: class I, class II, and class III. In humans, the HLA-B gene and two related genes, HLA-A and HLA-C, are the main genes in MHC class I.
MHC class I genes provide instructions for making proteins that are present on the surface of almost all cells. On the cell surface, these proteins are bound to protein fragments (peptides) that have been exported from within the cell. MHC class I proteins display these peptides to the immune system. If the immune system recognizes the peptides as foreign (such as viral or bacterial peptides), it responds by triggering the infected cell to self-destruct.
The HLA-B gene has many possible variations, allowing each person's immune system to react to a wide range of foreign invaders. Hundreds of versions (alleles) of the HLA-B gene are known, each of which is given a particular number (such as HLA-B27). Closely related alleles are categorized together; for example, more than 60 very similar alleles are subtypes of HLA-B27. These subtypes are designated as HLA-B*2701 to HLA-B*2763.
The HLA-B gene belongs to a family of genes called HLA (histocompatibility complex genes). It also belongs to a family of genes called immunoglobulin superfamily, C1-set domain containing (immunoglobulin superfamily, C1-set domain containing).
A gene family is a group of genes that share important characteristics. Classifying individual genes into families helps researchers describe how genes are related to each other. For more information, see What are gene families? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/howgeneswork/genefamilies) in the Handbook.
A version of the HLA-B gene called HLA-B27 increases the risk of developing ankylosing spondylitis. It is uncertain how HLA-B27 causes this increased risk. Researchers speculate that HLA-B27 may abnormally display peptides that trigger an immune reaction, resulting in the inflammatory process that causes arthritis. Other research suggests that the joint inflammation characteristic of this disorder may result from improper folding of the HLA-B27 protein or the presence of abnormal forms of the protein on the cell surface. Although many people with ankylosing spondylitis have the HLA-B27 variation, most people with this version of the HLA-B gene never develop the disorder. Additional genetic and environmental factors, many of which are unknown, affect the chances of developing ankylosing spondylitis and influence its progression.
Another version of the HLA-B gene, HLA-B51, is associated with an increased risk of developing Behçet disease, a chronic inflammatory condition that affects many parts of the body. This association is strongest in people from Japan, the Middle East, and other parts of Asia. Researchers do not know how HLA-B51 increases the risk of this disorder. Although many people with Behçet disease have the HLA-B51 variation, most people with this version of the HLA-B gene never develop the condition. It appears likely that other factors, such as viral or bacterial infections and changes in other genes, also influence the development of this complex disorder.
The HLA-B27 variant is associated with a group of inflammatory joint diseases related to ankylosing spondylitis. These conditions are known as spondyloarthropathies. Some of these disorders are associated with a common skin condition called psoriasis or with chronic disorders that cause inflammation of the intestinal walls (inflammatory bowel disease). One of the spondyloarthropathies, reactive arthritis, is typically triggered by bacterial infections of the gastrointestinal or genital tract. Following an infection, affected individuals may develop arthritis, back pain, and eye inflammation. Like ankylosing spondylitis, many factors probably contribute to the development of reactive arthritis and other spondyloarthropathies.
Other variations of the HLA-B gene are associated with adverse reactions to certain drugs. For example, two specific versions of this gene are related to increased drug sensitivity among the Han Chinese population and possibly other Asian populations. Individuals who have the variation HLA-B*1502 are more likely to experience a severe skin disorder called Stevens-Johnson syndrome in response to carbamazepine (a drug used to treat seizures). Another version, HLA-B*5801, is associated with an increased risk of severe skin reactions in people treated with allopurinol (a drug used to treat gout, which is a form of arthritis caused by a buildup of uric acid in the joints).
Among people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, a version of the HLA-B gene designated HLA-B*5701 increases the risk of an adverse reaction to the drug abacavir. This medication slows the spread of the HIV-1 virus in the body. People with abacavir hypersensitivity often develop a fever, chills, rash, upset stomach, and other symptoms when treated with this drug.
Several variations of the HLA-B gene appear to play a role in the progression of HIV infection to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). AIDS is a disease that damages the immune system, preventing it from effectively defending the body against infections. The signs and symptoms of AIDS may not appear until 10 or more years after infection with HIV. Studies suggest that people with HIV infection who have HLA-B27 or HLA-B57 tend to progress more slowly than usual to AIDS. On the other hand, researchers believe that HIV-positive individuals who have HLA-B35 tend to develop the signs and symptoms of AIDS more quickly than usual. Other factors also influence the progression of HIV infection to AIDS.
Another version of the HLA-B gene, HLA-B53, has been shown to help protect against severe malaria. HLA-B53 is most common in West African populations, where malaria is a frequent cause of death in children. Researchers suggest that this version of the HLA-B gene may help the immune system respond more effectively to the parasite that causes malaria.
Cytogenetic Location: 6p21.3
Molecular Location on chromosome 6: base pairs 31,353,871 to 31,357,211
The HLA-B gene is located on the short (p) arm of chromosome 6 at position 21.3.
More precisely, the HLA-B gene is located from base pair 31,353,871 to base pair 31,357,211 on chromosome 6.
See How do geneticists indicate the location of a gene? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/howgeneswork/genelocation) in the Handbook.
You and your healthcare professional may find the following resources about HLA-B helpful.
You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for genetics professionals and researchers.
See How are genetic conditions and genes named? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/naming) in the Handbook.
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ; AIDS ; allopurinol ; arthritis ; bacteria ; carbamazepine ; cell ; chronic ; class ; cutaneous ; fever ; gastrointestinal ; gene ; gout ; HIV ; HLA ; idiopathic ; immune system ; immunodeficiency ; infection ; inflammation ; joint ; joint inflammation ; juvenile ; leukocyte ; malaria ; MHC ; population ; progression ; protein ; psoriasis ; sensitivity ; spondylitis ; stomach ; syndrome ; uric acid ; virus
You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary).
The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.