Reviewed March 2010
What is the official name of the HPS3 gene?
The official name of this gene is “Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 3.”
HPS3 is the gene's official symbol. The HPS3 gene is also known by other names, listed below.
What is the normal function of the HPS3 gene?
The HPS3 gene provides instructions for making a protein that forms part of a complex called biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-2 (BLOC-2). Although the specific function of BLOC-2 is not well understood, it plays a role in the formation and movement (trafficking) of a group of cellular structures called lysosome-related organelles (LROs). LROs are very similar to compartments within the cell called lysosomes, which digest and recycle materials. However, LROs perform specialized functions and are found only in certain cell types.
Within pigment cells (melanocytes), LROs called melanosomes produce and distribute melanin, which is the substance that gives skin, hair, and eyes their color. A different type of LRO is found in platelets, the blood cells involved in normal blood clotting. These LROs, called dense granules, release chemical signals that cause platelets to stick together and form a blood clot.
How are changes in the HPS3 gene related to health conditions?
- Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome - caused by mutations in the HPS3 gene
At least 7 mutations in the HPS3 gene have been found to cause Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 3, which is a mild form of the condition. These mutations impair the normal function of BLOC-2, disrupting the size, structure, and function of LROs in cells throughout the body.
One common mutation results in a deletion of genetic material within the HPS3 gene. This deletion includes approximately 3,900 DNA building blocks (nucleotides) and is known as the 3.9kb deletion. It is also written as 339_4260del3904. This mutation, which is found in affected individuals from the central region of Puerto Rico, prevents the production of any HPS3 protein.
Another mutation in the HPS3 gene has been found in people with Central and Eastern European (Ashkenazi) Jewish background. This mutation, called a splice-site mutation, disrupts the way the gene's instructions are used to make the protein. This mutation, which is written as 1163+1G>A, results in an abnormally short protein.
People with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome have abnormally light pigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes because melanosomes do not distribute melanin properly. The absence of dense granules within platelets leads to bleeding problems in affected individuals.
Where is the HPS3 gene located?
Cytogenetic Location: 3q24
Molecular Location on chromosome 3: base pairs 148,847,370 to 148,891,304
The HPS3 gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 3 at position 24.
More precisely, the HPS3 gene is located from base pair 148,847,370 to base pair 148,891,304 on chromosome 3.
See How do geneticists indicate the location of a gene? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/howgeneswork/genelocation) in the Handbook.
Where can I find additional information about HPS3?
You and your healthcare professional may find the following resources about HPS3 helpful.
- MedlinePlus - Health information
Encyclopedia: Melanin (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/imagepages/9620.htm)
- Educational resources - Information pages
Molecular Biology of the Cell (fourth edition, 2002): Some Lysosomes May Undergo Exocytosis (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26844/)
- Gene Reviews - Clinical summary (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1287/)
Genetic Testing Registry - Repository of genetic test information
- GTR: Genetic tests for HPS3 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gtr/tests/?term=84343%5Bgeneid%5D)
You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for genetics professionals and researchers.
- PubMed - Recent literature (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=((HPS3%5BTIAB%5D)%20OR%20(Hermansky-Pudlak%20syndrome%203%5BTIAB%5D))%20AND%20((Genes%5BMH%5D)%20OR%20(Genetic%20Phenomena%5BMH%5D))%20AND%20english%5Bla%5D%20AND%20human%5Bmh%5D%20AND%20%22last%203600%20days%22%5Bdp%5D)
- OMIM - Genetic disorder catalog (http://omim.org/entry/606118)
Research Resources - Tools for researchers
- Entrez Gene (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/84343)
- GeneCards (http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?id_type=entrezgene&id=84343)
- HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (http://www.genenames.org/data/hgnc_data.php?hgnc_id=15597)
- International Albinism Center at the University of Minnesota: HPS3 Mutation Database (http://albinismdb.med.umn.edu/hps3mut.html)
What other names do people use for the HPS3 gene or gene products?
- Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 3 protein
See How are genetic conditions and genes named? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/naming) in the Handbook.
What glossary definitions help with understanding HPS3?
blood clotting ;
splice-site mutation ;
You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference
- Anikster Y, Huizing M, White J, Shevchenko YO, Fitzpatrick DL, Touchman JW, Compton JG, Bale SJ, Swank RT, Gahl WA, Toro JR. Mutation of a new gene causes a unique form of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome in a genetic isolate of central Puerto Rico. Nat Genet. 2001 Aug;28(4):376-80. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11455388?dopt=Abstract)
- Dessinioti C, Stratigos AJ, Rigopoulos D, Katsambas AD. A review of genetic disorders of hypopigmentation: lessons learned from the biology of melanocytes. Exp Dermatol. 2009 Sep;18(9):741-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0625.2009.00896.x. Epub 2009 Jun 23. Review. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19555431?dopt=Abstract)
- Entrez Gene (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/84343)
- Gahl WA, Brantly M, Kaiser-Kupfer MI, Iwata F, Hazelwood S, Shotelersuk V, Duffy LF, Kuehl EM, Troendle J, Bernardini I. Genetic defects and clinical characteristics of patients with a form of oculocutaneous albinism (Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome). N Engl J Med. 1998 Apr 30;338(18):1258-64. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9562579?dopt=Abstract)
- Huizing M, Anikster Y, Fitzpatrick DL, Jeong AB, D'Souza M, Rausche M, Toro JR, Kaiser-Kupfer MI, White JG, Gahl WA. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 3 in Ashkenazi Jews and other non-Puerto Rican patients with hypopigmentation and platelet storage-pool deficiency. Am J Hum Genet. 2001 Nov;69(5):1022-32. Epub 2001 Oct 3. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11590544?dopt=Abstract)
- Huizing M, Helip-Wooley A, Westbroek W, Gunay-Aygun M, Gahl WA. Disorders of lysosome-related organelle biogenesis: clinical and molecular genetics. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet. 2008;9:359-86. doi: 10.1146/annurev.genom.9.081307.164303. Review. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18544035?dopt=Abstract)
- Huizing M, Parkes JM, Helip-Wooley A, White JG, Gahl WA. Platelet alpha granules in BLOC-2 and BLOC-3 subtypes of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. Platelets. 2007 Mar;18(2):150-7. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17365864?dopt=Abstract)
- Li W, Feng Y, Hao C, Guo X, Cui Y, He M, He X. The BLOC interactomes form a network in endosomal transport. J Genet Genomics. 2007 Aug;34(8):669-82. Review. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17707211?dopt=Abstract)
- OMIM: HPS3 GENE (http://omim.org/entry/606118)
- Santiago Borrero PJ, Rodríguez-Pérez Y, Renta JY, Izquierdo NJ, Del Fierro L, Muńoz D, Molina NL, Ramírez S, Pagán-Mercado G, Ortíz I, Rivera-Caragol E, Spritz RA, Cadilla CL. Genetic testing for oculocutaneous albinism type 1 and 2 and Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 1 and 3 mutations in Puerto Rico. J Invest Dermatol. 2006 Jan;126(1):85-90. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16417222?dopt=Abstract)
The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for
professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about
a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified
See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.