Reviewed July 2008
What is the official name of the LGI1 gene?
The official name of this gene is “leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1.”
LGI1 is the gene's official symbol. The LGI1 gene is also known by other names, listed below.
What is the normal function of the LGI1 gene?
The LGI1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 (Lgi1) or epitempin. This protein is found primarily in nerve cells (neurons) in the brain, including a part of the brain called the lateral temporal lobe. The temporal lobe of the brain is involved in hearing, speech, memory, and emotion.
Although researchers have proposed several functions for epitempin, its precise role in the brain remains uncertain. This protein is probably involved in normal brain development.
Some studies have suggested that epitempin plays a role in the normal function of potassium channels in neurons. These channels are embedded in the cell membrane, where they transport charged potassium atoms (potassium ions) out of neurons. Potassium channels are critical for normal electrical signaling in these cells. Other studies have found that epitempin is transported (secreted) out of neurons. The function of this protein outside cells is unclear.
Epitempin may also help regulate the communication between neurons. Researchers have determined that epitempin attaches (binds) to a receptor protein called ADAM22 on the surface of neurons. Together, these proteins help control the release of certain brain chemicals called neurotransmitters. These chemicals allow neighboring neurons to communicate with each other, which is how signals are relayed throughout the brain.
How are changes in the LGI1 gene related to health conditions?
- autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features - caused by mutations in the LGI1 gene
At least 22 mutations in the LGI1 gene have been identified in people with autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF). Some LGI1 mutations change a single protein building block (amino acid) in the epitempin protein, which alters the protein's structure. Other mutations lead to the production of an abnormally short, nonfunctional version of the protein. Researchers suspect that the altered protein is unable to be secreted, which would leave it trapped within cells and unable to perform its usual functions. Although LGI1 mutations disrupt the function of epitempin, it is unclear how the altered protein leads to seizure activity in the brain.
- cancers - associated with the LGI1 gene
When the LGI1 gene was first described, researchers believed that it might play a role in the growth and progression of brain tumors called gliomas. Epitempin was thought to act as a tumor suppressor, which is a protein that keeps cells from growing and dividing too fast or in an uncontrolled way. More recent studies have called into question the role of epitempin in cancerous tumors. Because no LGI1 mutations have been identified in gliomas and people with ADPEAF do not appear to have a greatly increased risk of these tumors, it now appears unlikely that epitempin functions as a tumor suppressor.
Where is the LGI1 gene located?
Cytogenetic Location: 10q24
Molecular Location on chromosome 10: base pairs 95,517,565 to 95,557,915
The LGI1 gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 10 at position 24.
More precisely, the LGI1 gene is located from base pair 95,517,565 to base pair 95,557,915 on chromosome 10.
See How do geneticists indicate the location of a gene? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/howgeneswork/genelocation) in the Handbook.
Where can I find additional information about LGI1?
You and your healthcare professional may find the following resources about LGI1 helpful.
- Gene Reviews - Clinical summary (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=gene&part=peaf)
Genetic Testing Registry - Repository of genetic test information
- GTR: Genetic tests for LGI1 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gtr/tests/?term=9211%5Bgeneid%5D)
You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for genetics professionals and researchers.
- PubMed - Recent literature (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=((LGI1%5BTIAB%5D)%20OR%20(epitempin%5BTIAB%5D))%20AND%20((Genes%5BMH%5D)%20OR%20(Genetic%20Phenomena%5BMH%5D))%20AND%20english%5Bla%5D%20AND%20human%5Bmh%5D%20AND%20%22last%201800%20days%22%5Bdp%5D)
- OMIM - Genetic disorder catalog (http://omim.org/entry/604619)
Research Resources - Tools for researchers
- Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology (http://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/Genes/GC_LGI1.html)
- Entrez Gene (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/9211)
- GeneCards (http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?id_type=entrezgene&id=9211)
- HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (http://www.genenames.org/data/hgnc_data.php?hgnc_id=6572)
What other names do people use for the LGI1 gene or gene products?
- Epitempin 1
- Leucine-Rich Glioma-Inactivated Protein 1
See How are genetic conditions and genes named? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/naming) in the Handbook.
What glossary definitions help with understanding LGI1?
amino acid ;
autosomal dominant ;
cell membrane ;
You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference
- Chernova OB, Somerville RP, Cowell JK. A novel gene, LGI1, from 10q24 is rearranged and downregulated in malignant brain tumors. Oncogene. 1998 Dec 3;17(22):2873-81. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9879993?dopt=Abstract)
- Entrez Gene (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/9211)
- Fukata Y, Adesnik H, Iwanaga T, Bredt DS, Nicoll RA, Fukata M. Epilepsy-related ligand/receptor complex LGI1 and ADAM22 regulate synaptic transmission. Science. 2006 Sep 22;313(5794):1792-5. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16990550?dopt=Abstract)
- Furlan S, Roncaroli F, Forner F, Vitiello L, Calabria E, Piquer-Sirerol S, Valle G, Perez-Tur J, Michelucci R, Nobile C. The LGI1/epitempin gene encodes two protein isoforms differentially expressed in human brain. J Neurochem. 2006 Aug;98(3):985-91. Epub 2006 Jun 19. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16787412?dopt=Abstract)
- Gu W, Brodtkorb E, Piepoli T, Finocchiaro G, Steinlein OK. LGI1: a gene involved in epileptogenesis and glioma progression? Neurogenetics. 2005 May;6(2):59-66. Epub 2005 Apr 13. Review. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15827762?dopt=Abstract)
- Gu W, Brodtkorb E, Steinlein OK. LGI1 is mutated in familial temporal lobe epilepsy characterized by aphasic seizures. Ann Neurol. 2002 Sep;52(3):364-7. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12205652?dopt=Abstract)
- Kalachikov S, Evgrafov O, Ross B, Winawer M, Barker-Cummings C, Martinelli Boneschi F, Choi C, Morozov P, Das K, Teplitskaya E, Yu A, Cayanis E, Penchaszadeh G, Kottmann AH, Pedley TA, Hauser WA, Ottman R, Gilliam TC. Mutations in LGI1 cause autosomal-dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features. Nat Genet. 2002 Mar;30(3):335-41. Epub 2002 Jan 28. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11810107?dopt=Abstract)
- Morante-Redolat JM, Gorostidi-Pagola A, Piquer-Sirerol S, Sáenz A, Poza JJ, Galán J, Gesk S, Sarafidou T, Mautner VF, Binelli S, Staub E, Hinzmann B, French L, Prud'homme JF, Passarelli D, Scannapieco P, Tassinari CA, Avanzini G, Martí-Massó JF, Kluwe L, Deloukas P, Moschonas NK, Michelucci R, Siebert R, Nobile C, Pérez-Tur J, López de Munain A. Mutations in the LGI1/Epitempin gene on 10q24 cause autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy. Hum Mol Genet. 2002 May 1;11(9):1119-28. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11978770?dopt=Abstract)
- Ottman R, Winawer MR, Kalachikov S, Barker-Cummings C, Gilliam TC, Pedley TA, Hauser WA. LGI1 mutations in autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features. Neurology. 2004 Apr 13;62(7):1120-6. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15079011?dopt=Abstract)
- Piepoli T, Jakupoglu C, Gu W, Lualdi E, Suarez-Merino B, Poliani PL, Cattaneo MG, Ortino B, Goplen D, Wang J, Mola R, Inverardi F, Frassoni C, Bjerkvig R, Steinlein O, Vicentini LM, Brüstle O, Finocchiaro G. Expression studies in gliomas and glial cells do not support a tumor suppressor role for LGI1. Neuro Oncol. 2006 Apr;8(2):96-108. Epub 2006 Mar 2. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16533756?dopt=Abstract)
- Schulte U, Thumfart JO, Klöcker N, Sailer CA, Bildl W, Biniossek M, Dehn D, Deller T, Eble S, Abbass K, Wangler T, Knaus HG, Fakler B. The epilepsy-linked Lgi1 protein assembles into presynaptic Kv1 channels and inhibits inactivation by Kvbeta1. Neuron. 2006 Mar 2;49(5):697-706. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16504945?dopt=Abstract)
- Senechal KR, Thaller C, Noebels JL. ADPEAF mutations reduce levels of secreted LGI1, a putative tumor suppressor protein linked to epilepsy. Hum Mol Genet. 2005 Jun 15;14(12):1613-20. Epub 2005 Apr 27. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15857855?dopt=Abstract)
- Sirerol-Piquer MS, Ayerdi-Izquierdo A, Morante-Redolat JM, Herranz-Pérez V, Favell K, Barker PA, Pérez-Tur J. The epilepsy gene LGI1 encodes a secreted glycoprotein that binds to the cell surface. Hum Mol Genet. 2006 Dec 1;15(23):3436-45. Epub 2006 Oct 26. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17067999?dopt=Abstract)
The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for
professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about
a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified
See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.