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Genetics Home Reference: your guide to understanding genetic conditions
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NFKBIA

Reviewed August 2013

What is the official name of the NFKBIA gene?

The official name of this gene is “nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha.”

NFKBIA is the gene's official symbol. The NFKBIA gene is also known by other names, listed below.

What is the normal function of the NFKBIA gene?

The NFKBIA gene provides instructions for making one piece (the alpha subunit) of the IKK protein complex, which is a group of related proteins that regulates the activity of nuclear factor-kappa-B. Nuclear factor-kappa-B is a protein complex that binds to DNA and controls the activity of other genes. When it is turned off (inactive), nuclear factor-kappa-B is attached (bound) to the IKK complex. In response to certain signals, the IKK complex turns on (activates) nuclear factor-kappa-B and releases it.

The NFKBIA protein helps keep nuclear factor-kappa-B bound in the IKK complex. When the NFKBIA protein receives a signal that nuclear factor-kappa-B is to be released, it breaks down so the factor can be turned on (activated) and released from the complex. Once the active factor is released, it moves into the nucleus and binds to DNA. Nuclear factor-kappa-B regulates the activity of multiple genes, including genes that control the body's immune responses and inflammatory reactions. Nuclear factor-kappa-B also appears to play a role in the signaling pathway that is critical for the formation of ectodermal tissues including the skin, hair, teeth, and sweat glands. In addition, it protects the cell from certain signals that would otherwise cause it to self-destruct (undergo apoptosis).

Does the NFKBIA gene share characteristics with other genes?

The NFKBIA gene belongs to a family of genes called ANKRD (ankyrin repeat domain containing).

A gene family is a group of genes that share important characteristics. Classifying individual genes into families helps researchers describe how genes are related to each other. For more information, see What are gene families? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/howgeneswork/genefamilies) in the Handbook.

How are changes in the NFKBIA gene related to health conditions?

anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immune deficiency - caused by mutations in the NFKBIA gene

At least five mutations in the NFKBIA gene have been found to cause anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immune deficiency (EDA-ID). EDA-ID is a condition characterized by reduced function of the immune system, resulting in recurrent infections, and abnormal development of ectodermal tissues. The NFKBIA gene mutations that cause EDA-ID impair the protein's breakdown. As a result, nuclear factor-kappa-B is not activated or released from the IKK complex. Without nuclear factor-kappa-B available in the nucleus to regulate gene activity, certain signaling pathways within immune cells and cells that form ectodermal tissues are disrupted, resulting in immune deficiency and incomplete development of tissues of the ectoderm as occurs in individuals with EDA-ID.

Where is the NFKBIA gene located?

Cytogenetic Location: 14q13

Molecular Location on chromosome 14: base pairs 35,401,509 to 35,404,753

The NFKBIA gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 14 at position 13.

The NFKBIA gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 14 at position 13.

More precisely, the NFKBIA gene is located from base pair 35,401,509 to base pair 35,404,753 on chromosome 14.

See How do geneticists indicate the location of a gene? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/howgeneswork/genelocation) in the Handbook.

Where can I find additional information about NFKBIA?

You and your healthcare professional may find the following resources about NFKBIA helpful.

You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for genetics professionals and researchers.

What other names do people use for the NFKBIA gene or gene products?

  • IkappaBalpha
  • I-kappa-B-alpha
  • IKBA
  • IKBA_HUMAN
  • ikB-alpha
  • MAD-3
  • major histocompatibility complex enhancer-binding protein MAD3
  • NF-kappa-B inhibitor alpha
  • NFKBI
  • nuclear factor of kappa light chain gene enhancer in B-cells

See How are genetic conditions and genes named? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/naming) in the Handbook.

What glossary definitions help with understanding NFKBIA?

apoptosis ; B-cells ; breakdown ; cell ; deficiency ; DNA ; dysplasia ; ectoderm ; enhancer ; gene ; immune system ; nucleus ; phosphorylation ; protein ; subunit

You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary).

References

  • Courtois G, Smahi A, Reichenbach J, Döffinger R, Cancrini C, Bonnet M, Puel A, Chable-Bessia C, Yamaoka S, Feinberg J, Dupuis-Girod S, Bodemer C, Livadiotti S, Novelli F, Rossi P, Fischer A, Israël A, Munnich A, Le Deist F, Casanova JL. A hypermorphic IkappaBalpha mutation is associated with autosomal dominant anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and T cell immunodeficiency. J Clin Invest. 2003 Oct;112(7):1108-15. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14523047?dopt=Abstract)
  • Kawai T, Nishikomori R, Heike T. Diagnosis and treatment in anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency. Allergol Int. 2012 Jun;61(2):207-17. doi: 10.2332/allergolint.12-RAI-0446. Review. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22635013?dopt=Abstract)
  • McDonald DR, Mooster JL, Reddy M, Bawle E, Secord E, Geha RS. Heterozygous N-terminal deletion of IkappaBalpha results in functional nuclear factor kappaB haploinsufficiency, ectodermal dysplasia, and immune deficiency. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007 Oct;120(4):900-7. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17931563?dopt=Abstract)
  • NCBI Gene (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/4792)
  • OMIM: NUCLEAR FACTOR OF KAPPA LIGHT CHAIN GENE ENHANCER IN B CELLS INHIBITOR, ALPHA (http://omim.org/entry/164008)
  • Puel A, Picard C, Ku CL, Smahi A, Casanova JL. Inherited disorders of NF-kappaB-mediated immunity in man. Curr Opin Immunol. 2004 Feb;16(1):34-41. Review. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14734108?dopt=Abstract)

 

The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.

 
Reviewed: August 2013
Published: August 25, 2014