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Genetics Home Reference: your guide to understanding genetic conditions
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RAG2

The information on this page was automatically extracted from online scientific databases.

What is the official name of the RAG2 gene?

The official name of this gene is “recombination activating gene 2.”

RAG2 is the gene's official symbol. The RAG2 gene is also known by other names, listed below.

What is the normal function of the RAG2 gene?

From NCBI Gene (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/5897):

This gene encodes a protein that is involved in the initiation of V(D)J recombination during B and T cell development. This protein forms a complex with the product of the adjacent recombination activating gene 1, and this complex can form double-strand breaks by cleaving DNA at conserved recombination signal sequences. The recombination activating gene 1 component is thought to contain most of the catalytic activity, while the N-terminal of the recombination activating gene 2 component is thought to form a six-bladed propeller in the active core that serves as a binding scaffold for the tight association of the complex with DNA. A C-terminal plant homeodomain finger-like motif in this protein is necessary for interactions with chromatin components, specifically with histone H3 that is trimethylated at lysine 4. Mutations in this gene cause Omenn syndrome, a form of severe combined immunodeficiency associated with autoimmune-like symptoms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

From UniProt (http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P55895):

Core component of the RAG complex, a multiprotein complex that mediates the DNA cleavage phase during V(D)J recombination. V(D)J recombination assembles a diverse repertoire of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genes in developing B and T-lymphocytes through rearrangement of different V (variable), in some cases D (diversity), and J (joining) gene segments. DNA cleavage by the RAG complex occurs in 2 steps: a first nick is introduced in the top strand immediately upstream of the heptamer, generating a 3'-hydroxyl group that can attack the phosphodiester bond on the opposite strand in a direct transesterification reaction, thereby creating 4 DNA ends: 2 hairpin coding ends and 2 blunt, 5'-phosphorylated ends. The chromatin structure plays an essential role in the V(D)J recombination reactions and the presence of histone H3 trimethylated at 'Lys-4' (H3K4me3) stimulates both the nicking and haipinning steps. The RAG complex also plays a role in pre-B cell allelic exclusion, a process leading to expression of a single immunoglobulin heavy chain allele to enforce clonality and monospecific recognition by the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) expressed on individual B-lymphocytes. The introduction of DNA breaks by the RAG complex on one immunoglobulin allele induces ATM-dependent repositioning of the other allele to pericentromeric heterochromatin, preventing accessibility to the RAG complex and recombination of the second allele. In the RAG complex, RAG2 is not the catalytic component but is required for all known catalytic activities mediated by RAG1. It probably acts as a sensor of chromatin state that recruits the RAG complex to H3K4me3.

How are changes in the RAG2 gene related to health conditions?

UniProt (http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P55895) provides the following information about the RAG2 gene's known or predicted involvement in human disease.

Combined cellular and humoral immune defects with granulomas (CHIDG): Immunodeficiency disease with granulomas in the skin, mucous membranes, and internal organs. Other characteristics include hypogammaglobulinemia, a diminished number of T and B-cells, and sparse thymic tissue on ultrasonography.[1] The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Severe combined immunodeficiency autosomal recessive T-cell-negative/B-cell-negative/NK-cell-positive (T(-)B(-)NK(+) SCID): A form of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. Patients present in infancy recurrent, persistent infections by opportunistic organisms. The common characteristic of all types of SCID is absence of T-cell-mediated cellular immunity due to a defect in T-cell development.[2] The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Omenn syndrome (OS): Severe immunodeficiency characterized by the presence of activated, anergic, oligoclonal T-cells, hypereosinophilia, and high IgE levels.[3] The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

NCBI Gene (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/5897) lists the following diseases or traits (phenotypes) known or believed to be associated with changes in the RAG2 gene.
  • Combined cellular and humoral immune defects with granulomas[1]
  • Histiocytic medullary reticulosis[3]
  • Severe immunodeficiency, autosomal recessive, T-cell negative, B-cell negative, NK cell-positive[2]
UniProt and NCBI Gene cite these articles in OMIM, a catalog designed for genetics professionals and researchers that provides detailed information about genetic conditions and genes.
 Article
Number
Main Topic
[1]
[2]
[3]

Where is the RAG2 gene located?

Cytogenetic Location: 11p13

Molecular Location on chromosome 11: base pairs 36,591,942 to 36,598,278

The RAG2 gene is located on the short (p) arm of chromosome 11 at position 13.

The RAG2 gene is located on the short (p) arm of chromosome 11 at position 13.

More precisely, the RAG2 gene is located from base pair 36,591,942 to base pair 36,598,278 on chromosome 11.

See How do geneticists indicate the location of a gene? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/howgeneswork/genelocation) in the Handbook.

Where can I find additional information about RAG2?

You and your healthcare professional may find the following resources about RAG2 helpful.

You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for genetics professionals and researchers.

What other names do people use for the RAG2 gene or gene products?

  • RAG-2

See How are genetic conditions and genes named? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/naming) in the Handbook.

What glossary definitions help with understanding RAG2?

allele ; antibody ; autoimmune ; autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; B-cells ; B-lymphocytes ; catalytic ; cell ; chromatin ; congenital ; deficiency ; DNA ; expressed ; gene ; heterochromatin ; histone ; homeodomain ; hydroxyl ; immunodeficiency ; immunoglobulin ; Lys ; lysine ; motif ; mucous ; protein ; rearrangement ; receptor ; recessive ; syndrome ; T-cells ; tissue ; ultrasonography

You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary).

 

The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.

 
Published: October 20, 2014