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The official name of this gene is “SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 10.”
SOX10 is the gene's official symbol. The SOX10 gene is also known by other names, listed below.
The SOX10 gene belongs to a family of genes that plays a critical role in the formation of tissues and organs during embryonic development. The SOX gene family also maintains the normal function of certain cells after birth. To carry out these roles, proteins made by genes in the SOX family bind to specific areas of DNA. By attaching to critical regions near genes, SOX proteins help control the activity of those genes. SOX proteins are called transcription factors on the basis of this action.
During embryonic development, the SOX10 gene is active in cells called neural crest cells. These cells migrate from the developing spinal cord to specific regions in the embryo, where they give rise to many different types of cells. The protein made by the SOX10 gene directs the activity of other genes (such as MITF) that signal neural crest cells to become more specific cell types. In particular, the SOX10 protein is essential for the formation of nerves in the large intestine (enteric nerves) and melanocytes. Melanocytes are cells that produce melanin, a pigment that contributes to skin, hair, and eye color. Melanin is also involved in the normal function of the inner ear.
The SOX10 gene belongs to a family of genes called SOX (SRY (sex determining region Y)-box genes).
A gene family is a group of genes that share important characteristics. Classifying individual genes into families helps researchers describe how genes are related to each other. For more information, see What are gene families? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/howgeneswork/genefamilies) in the Handbook.
At least 15 mutations in the SOX10 gene have been identified in people with Waardenburg syndrome, type IV (also known as Waardenburg-Shah syndrome). This type of Waardenburg syndrome is characterized by changes in skin, hair, and eye coloring; hearing loss; and an intestinal disorder called Hirschsprung disease that causes severe constipation or intestinal blockage. Most SOX10 mutations lead to the production of an abnormally small version of the SOX10 protein or prevent the gene from making any protein. An abnormal or missing SOX10 protein cannot control genes that signal neural crest cells to become more specific cell types. As a result, enteric nerves and melanocytes do not form normally during embryonic development. Missing enteric nerves in certain parts of the intestine cause the signs and symptoms of Hirschsprung disease. A lack of melanocytes affects the coloring of skin, hair, and eyes and causes the hearing loss characteristic of Waardenburg syndrome.
Researchers have found that mutations in the SOX10 gene also cause a similar disorder known as PCWH (peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, central demyelinating leukodystrophy, Waardenburg syndrome, and Hirschsprung disease). This rare condition is a variant of Waardenburg syndrome, type IV that also affects other parts of the nervous system. Like mutations that cause Waardenburg syndrome, type IV, the mutations responsible for PCWH lead to the production of an abnormally small version of the SOX10 protein that is unable to direct the activity of other genes.
Cytogenetic Location: 22q13.1
Molecular Location on chromosome 22: base pairs 38,368,318 to 38,380,555
The SOX10 gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 22 at position 13.1.
More precisely, the SOX10 gene is located from base pair 38,368,318 to base pair 38,380,555 on chromosome 22.
See How do geneticists indicate the location of a gene? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/howgeneswork/genelocation) in the Handbook.
You and your healthcare professional may find the following resources about SOX10 helpful.
You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for genetics professionals and researchers.
See How are genetic conditions and genes named? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/naming) in the Handbook.
cell ; constipation ; DNA ; embryo ; embryonic ; enteric ; gene ; intestine ; leukodystrophy ; melanin ; melanocytes ; nervous system ; neural crest ; neuropathy ; peripheral ; pigment ; protein ; syndrome ; transcription ; transcription factor
You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary).
The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.