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The official name of this gene is “TSEN54 tRNA splicing endonuclease subunit.”
TSEN54 is the gene's official symbol. The TSEN54 gene is also known by other names, listed below.
The TSEN54 gene provides instructions for making one part (subunit) of an enzyme called the tRNA splicing endonuclease complex. This complex helps process several types of RNA molecules, which are chemical cousins of DNA.
The tRNA splicing endonuclease complex is particularly important for the normal processing of a form of RNA known as transfer RNA (tRNA). tRNA molecules help assemble protein building blocks known as amino acids into full-length proteins. However, before they can assemble proteins, tRNAs must be processed into mature molecules. In particular, some tRNA molecules contain regions called introns that need to be removed for the tRNAs to be functional. The tRNA splicing endonuclease complex recognizes and then removes introns to help produce mature tRNA molecules.
Studies suggest that the tRNA splicing endonuclease complex may also be involved in processing another form of RNA known as messenger RNA (mRNA). mRNA serves as a genetic blueprint for making proteins. Researchers suspect that the tRNA splicing endonuclease complex cuts (cleaves) one end of mRNA molecules so a string of adenines (one of the building blocks of RNA) can be added. This process is known as polyadenylation, and the string of adenines is known as a poly(A) tail. The poly(A) tail signals the stopping point for protein production and protects mRNA from being broken down before protein production occurs.
Several mutations in the TSEN54 gene have been found to cause pontocerebellar hypoplasia. These mutations can cause either pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2 (PCH2) or type 4 (PCH4). The most common mutation replaces the amino acid alanine with the amino acid serine at position 307 in the TSEN54 protein (written as Ala307Ser or A307S). Most people with PCH2 have this mutation in both copies of the TSEN54 gene in each cell. Individuals with PCH4 usually have the common Ala307Ser mutation in one copy of the TSEN54 gene in each cell and a more severe mutation in the other copy of the gene.
It is unclear how mutations in the TSEN54 gene alter the function of the tRNA splicing endonuclease complex and disrupt normal brain development. Researchers believe that mutations in this gene are probably responsible for most cases of PCH2 and PCH4.
Cytogenetic Location: 17q25.1
Molecular Location on chromosome 17: base pairs 73,512,608 to 73,520,820
The TSEN54 gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 17 at position 25.1.
More precisely, the TSEN54 gene is located from base pair 73,512,608 to base pair 73,520,820 on chromosome 17.
See How do geneticists indicate the location of a gene? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/howgeneswork/genelocation) in the Handbook.
You and your healthcare professional may find the following resources about TSEN54 helpful.
You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for genetics professionals and researchers.
See How are genetic conditions and genes named? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/naming) in the Handbook.
acids ; amino acid ; cell ; DNA ; endonuclease ; enzyme ; gene ; hypoplasia ; intron ; messenger RNA ; mRNA ; mutation ; polyadenylation ; protein ; RNA ; serine ; splicing ; subunit ; transfer RNA ; tRNA
You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary (http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary).
The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.