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Myosin superfamily gene family
Reviewed February 2013
What are the myosin superfamily genes?
Genes in the myosin superfamily provide instructions for making related proteins called myosins. Myosins are often referred to as molecular motors because they use energy to move. They interact with another protein called actin; actin proteins are organized into filaments to form a network (the cytoskeleton) that gives structure to cells and can act as a track for myosin to move along. Some myosin proteins attach (bind) to other proteins and transport them within and between cells along the actin track.
Some myosins are involved in muscle contraction. These myosins interact with other myosin proteins, forming thick filaments. In muscle cells, thick filaments made up of myosin and thin filaments made up of actin compose structures called sarcomeres, which are the basic units of muscle contraction. The overlapping thick and thin filaments bind to each other and release, which allows the filaments to move relative to one another so that muscles can contract. Mutations in genes that provide instructions for making muscle myosins can cause severe abnormalities in the muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles) or in the heart (cardiac) muscle. Cardiac muscle abnormalities can lead to heart failure and sudden death.
Myosin proteins are involved in many cellular functions. Their ability to transport materials and create force through contractions make them important in the process of cell division. Myosins are also involved in cell movement. Some myosins are found in specialized structures in the inner ear known as stereocilia. These myosins are thought to help properly organize the stereocilia. Abnormalities in these myosins can cause deafness.
Which genes are included in the myosin superfamily gene family?
The HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) provides a list of genes in the myosin superfamily
Genetics Home Reference summarizes the normal function and health implications of these members of the myosin superfamily gene family: MYH3, MYH6, MYH7, MYH9, MYH11, MYO1A, MYO5A, MYO6, MYO7A, and MYO15A.
What conditions are related to genes in the myosin superfamily gene family?
Genetics Home Reference includes these conditions related to genes in the myosin superfamily gene family:
Where can I find additional information about the myosin superfamily gene family?
You may find the following resources about the myosin superfamily gene family helpful.
Where can I find general information about genes and gene families?
The Handbook provides basic information about genetics in clear language.
What glossary definitions help with understanding the myosin superfamily gene family?
You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary.
See also Understanding Medical Terminology.
References (3 links)
The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? in the Handbook.